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Dictionary of World Biography
Milanković, Milutin (1879–1958). Yugoslavian
(Serbian) mathematician and geophysicist. He argued
(1942) that very long term variability in climate was
influenced by changes in axial tilt and the precession
of Earth’s orbit round the sun in a 26,000 year
cycle (explaining very long term climate variations).
Another Milanković cycle, involving eccentricity in
orbit, has a 100,000 year cycle.
Miles, Bernard Miles, Baron (1907–1989). English
actor and director. A successful character actor
(e.g. as Joe Gargery in the film Great Expectations),
he founded the Mermaid Theatre in 1950, producing
operas, repertory and musicals. He was knighted in
1969 and created a life peer in 1979.
Milford Haven, 1st Marquess of see Battenberg
Milhaud, Darius (1892–1974). French composer.
One of ‘Les Six’, a group of French modernists
who were active after World War I, and associated
with important literary figures e.g. *Claudel and
*Cocteau, he was both prolific and versatile. His
works include the ballets Protéc (1913–19), Le Boeuf
sur le toit (1919), and Le Création du monde (1923),
in which he uses jazz techniques, the operas Bolivar
(1943) and Christophe Colombe (1928), the suite
Scaramouche (1939) for two pianos, much chamber
music and many symphonies, some of them only a
few minutes long. Milhaud was professor of music at
Mills College, California 1940–47, and then returned
to Paris to teach at the Conservatoire. He published
Notes sans Musique (1952).
Roy, J., Darius Milhaud. 1969.
Miliband, David Wright (1965– ). English Labour
politician, born in London. Of Polish-Jewish descent,
he was educated at Oxford and MIT. MP 2001–13,
he served as Secretary of State for the Environment
2006–07 and Foreign Secretary 2007–10. He became
President and CEO of the International Rescue
Committee in New York City 2013– . In 2013 he
became President and CEO of the International
Rescue Committee in New York City. His brother
Ed(ward Samuel) Miliband (1969– ), an economist,
was Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change
2008–10. After a close contest between the two
brothers for Labour’s leadership, after Gordon *Brown
resigned, Ed Miliband was elected (September 2010)
and became Leader of the Opposition. Heavily
defeated in the May 2015 election, he resigned as
Labour leader.
Mill, James (1773–1836). Scottish philosopher and
political scientist. Son of a shoemaker, intended for
the ministry he studied Greek and philosophy at
Edinburgh University, but went to London (1802)
and became a close friend of Jeremy *Bentham, who
became a major influence. For some time he was
editor of the Literary Journal and contributed articles
to various other periodicals. In 1806 he began work
on his History of British India, and its publication
(1817–18) secured him a post at the London offices
of the East India Company. He continued to write
articles on political and economic subjects. His
Elements of Political Economy (1821–22) was written
primarily to educate his son John Stuart *Mill.
He also wrote Analysis of the Human Mind (1829).
Mill, John Stuart (1806–1873). British philosopher
and economist, born in London. Rigorously
educated by his father James *Mill, he began to
learn Greek at the age of three, showed prodigious
gifts, experiencing an abnormal (but not unhappy)
childhood. He joined his father in the London office
of the East India Company, working there 1823–58.
*Bentham was a major influence, but Mill modified
Utilitarianism’s goal of ‘the greatest happiness for
the greatest number’ by adding idealism, ethics and
the need for long-term satisfaction. In philosophy
he was an advocate of Induction (*Bacon’s scientific
method) and was influenced by *Locke’s Empiricism.
He wrote A System of Logic (2 vols., 1843). His
theory of Induction, arguing from the particular
to the general, is now regarded as simplistic and
overconfident. His Principles of Political Economy
(1848) followed the general approach of *Ricardo,
but cautioned against harsh imposition of abstract
reasoning. In On Liberty (1859), his greatest work,
he warned against the danger of tyranny by majority,
forcing conformity on minorities, emphasising the
need to recognise and protect individual differences.
He was also influenced and softened by his wife
Harriet Taylor (née Hardy), the one romance in his
life: he knew her from 1830, they married in 1851
and she died in 1858. As MP for Westminster 1865–
68, he advocated votes for women, proportional
representation, and sympathised with trade unions
and farm cooperatives. He died in Avignon and his
Autobiography (1873) was published posthumously.
His ideas and analytical method influenced the
Fabian Society (founded in 1884).
Britton, K. W., John Stuart Mill: His Life and
Philosophy. 2nd ed. 1969; Reeves, R., John Stuart
Mill: Victorian Firebrand. 2008.
Millais, Sir John Everett, 1st Baronet (1829–
1896). British painter, born in Southampton. From
a Jersey family, he exhibited at the Royal Academy
at the age of 17. In 1848 he joined with his friends
Holman *Hunt and *Rossetti in the foundation of
the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His first picture
in the Brotherhood’s detailed manner, Christ in the
House of his Parents (1850), caused controversy but
such pictures as Ophelia, The Blind Girl and Autumn
Leaves show the Pre-Raphaelites’ preoccupation with
colour, detail and design combined with the artist’s
own poetic vision. With the end (c.1859) of his PreRaphaelite period Millais lapsed into conventional
sentimentality with such pictures as The Boyhood of
Raleigh and the notorious Bubbles, a portrait of his
grandson (Admiral Sir William James), which was
bought as an advertisement for Pears’ Soap, one of the