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Dictionary of World Biography
Party 1983, he was the first from Québec for 90
years and the first recruited directly from industry.
He became Prime Minister in September 1984,
negotiated a free trade agreement with the US and
Mexico, lost popularity and retired in July 1993.
Multatuli (pen name of Eduard Douwes Dekker)
(1820–1887). Dutch novelist. He worked in Java
in the colonial service 1838–57 and his novel, Max
Havelaar (1860), an exposure of imperialism, is
regarded as a masterpiece. It was made into a powerful
film by Fons Rademakers in 1976.
Mumford, Lewis (1895–1990). American town
planner and social philosopher. His lectures and books
are mainly concerned with the growth or creation of
a social environment best suited to meet all the needs
of a city’s population: shelter, work, leisure, religion,
culture the whole complicated organisation of
modern urban living. His works include Technics and
Civilisation (1934), The Culture of the Cities (1938),
The City in History (1961), The Myth of the Machine
(1967) and The Pentagon of Power (1970). He had a
major impact on the environment movement and was
awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1964)
and an honorary KBE (1975).
Mumford, L., The Letters of Lewis Mumford and
Frederick J. Osborne: A Transatlantic Dialogue, 1938–
70. 1972.
Munch, Charles (1891–1968). French (Alsatian)
conductor, born in Strasbourg. Related to *Schweitzer
and *Sartre, he became a violinist, then conducted in
Paris. He directed the Boston Symphony Orchestra
1949–62 and the Orchestre de Paris 1967–68.
Munch, Edvard (1863–1944). Norwegian painter,
born in Löten. The misfortunes and miseries that
surrounded him as he grew up seem to have embittered
his attitude to life and left him with a feeling of the
malignancy of fate. Having been much influenced
in Paris by the work of van *Gogh and *Gauguin,
and by the ideas of *Ibsen and *Strindberg he held
an exhibition in Berlin (1892) which caused an
immediate scandal but paved the way for the German
Expressionist movement. His most famous work,
The Scream (Skrik, in Norwegian), full of angst, dates
from 1893. He painted sets for Ibsen and Strindberg.
In later work he depicted emotional states by colour
and form alone thus the ‘Threat’ in the picture of that
name is conveyed by the black treetops. From 1899 to
1908 he worked mainly in Paris, thereafter mainly in
Norway. A nervous breakdown (1908) was followed
by a happier period during which he painted murals
at Oslo University (1909–15) and found solace in the
serene Norwegian landscape. He did much, too, to
revitalise the woodcut and other graphic arts.
Benesch, O., Edvard Munch. 1960.
Münchausen, Hieronymus Karl Friedrich, Baron
von (1720–1797). Hanoverian soldier. The real bearer
of this name seems to have fought in the Russian
army against the Turks and to have become notorious
for his exaggerated accounts of his own exploits.
His name was attached, therefore, to a collection of
apocryphal and fantastic tales, published in English as
Baron Münchausen’s Narrative of his Marvellous Travels
and Campaigns in Russia (1785), by Rudolf Erich
Raspe (1737–1794), a German friend who had fled
to England to escape prosecution for theft.
Munnings, Sir Alfred James (1878–1959). English
painter. Trained as a lithographer and poster artist,
he was blinded in one eye in 1898, became a war
artist with the Canadians and a popular painter of
horses (and some people). President of the Royal
Academy 1944–49, he wrote three lively volumes of
autobiography (1950–52), but was best known for
his vigorous public attacks on modern art.
Munro, Alice Ann (née Laidlaw) (1931– ).
Canadian short story writer, born in Ontario. Ironic,
ambiguous, preoccupied with time and transitions,
much of her work has a regional emphasis, set in
Huron County, Ontario. In 2009 she won the Man
Booker Prize and received the 2013 Nobel Prize for
Literature as a ‘master of the modern short story’. Her
writing has been compared with *Chekhov’s for its
sharp, compressed observation.
Munro, Hector Hugo see Saki
Munrow, David John (1942–1976). English
musician and historian, born in Birmingham.
Educated in Cambridge, he was a virtuoso on the
recorder, a leader in reviving interest in medieval
and Renaissance music, toured extensively and made
radio and television programs. He hanged himself.
Munthe, Axel (1857–1949). Swedish physician
and author. After a successful professional career,
for part of which he was physician to the Swedish
royal family, he retired to the Italian island of Capri
where he wrote the semi-autobiographical bestseller
The Story of San Michele (1929) and where, largely
through his influence, a sanctuary for migrating birds
was established.
Munthe, G. and Vexkull, G., The Story of Axel
Munthe. 1953.
Anabaptist leader. He toured Germany preaching
his communistic doctrines and eventually settled at
Mühlhausen (1525): there he set up a communist
theocracy which, despite *Luther’s denunciations,
won the support of large numbers of the peasantry.
The movement was crushed by *Philip of Hesse and
Münzer was captured and executed.