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Dictionary of World Biography
to do valuable work on malaria, rinderpest, bubonic
plague and trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness).
He received the Nobel Prize for Medicine (1905).
Moellers, B., Robert Koch: Persönlichkeit und
Lebenswerk, 1843–1910. 1950.
Köchel, Ludwig (Alois Ferdinand) (1800–1877).
Austrian bibliographer. An amateur botanist and
mineralogist, in 1862 he published a chronologicalthematic catalogue of *Mozart’s compositions. His
name is immortalised by the K. (Köchel) number.
Kodály, Zoltán (1882–1967). Hungarian and
teacher, born in Kecsemét. He studied under Hans
Koessler at the Budapest Conservatoire, where he later
became professor. With *Bartók he started to collect
and study Hungarian folk music. His best known
works are the Cello Sonata (1915), the choral works
Psalmus Hungaricus (1923) and Te Deum (1936), the
comic opera Hary Janos (1926), Dances of Marosszek
(1930), Dances of Galanta (1933) and Concerto for
Orchestra (1940). He was an outstanding teacher and
textbook writer: ‘Kodály method’ encouraged basic
musical literacy in Hungary and was adopted abroad.
Eosze, L., Kodály, his Life and Work. 1962.
Koenig, Pierre Joseph (1898–1970). French
soldier. He worked closely with de *Gaulle, held off
*Rommel’s Afrika Korps at Bir Hakeim (1942), led
French forces at the Normandy invasion (1944), was
military Governor in Germany 1945–49 and Minister
for Defence 1954–55. He was posthumously created
marshal in 1984.
Koestler, Arthur (1905–1983). British Hungarian
author, born in Budapest. After dropping out of
science, he went to Palestine in 1926 as a Zionist
activist, working on a collective farm in Palestine,
then became a reporter for a German newspaper and
travelled in the Soviet Union. Later while reporting
the Spanish Civil War for an English newspaper he
was sentenced to death as a spy by *Franco’s forces,
but was released and went to France, here he was
arrested and imprisoned after the fall of France but
escaped to England. In 1938 he left the Communist
Party – his disillusionment is described in The God
that Failed (1950). Koestler first wrote in Hungarian
but for his later writing mastered German, French and
English. His first novel in England was Arrival and
Departure (1943). Darkness at Noon (1941), regarded
as his masterpiece, is a great political novel. He wrote
works, e.g. The Yogi and the Commissar (1945) and
the autobiographical Arrow in the Blue (1952). The
Sleepwalkers (1959), The Act of Creation (1964) and
The Roots of Coincidence (1972), on scientific themes,
were controversial. A passionate opponent of capital
punishment, he wrote Reflections on Hanging (1956)
and Hanged by the Neck (with C. H. Rolph, 1961).
Koestler, an advocate of euthanasia, committed
suicide with his wife Cynthia Jefferies after long
suffering from Parkinson’s disease.
Frazier, T, and Merrill, R., Arthur Koestler An
International Bibliography. 1979; Cesarini, D.,
Arthur Koestler: The Homeless Mind. 1999; Scammell,
M., Koestler: The Literary and Political Odyssey of a
Twentieth-Century Sceptic. 2009.
Kohl, Helmut Michael (1930– ). German politician.
Educated at Frankfurt and Heidelberg universities,
he was a member of the Rhineland Palatinate
legislature 1959–76 and Minister-President 1969–
76. He became Chairman of the National Christian
Democratic Union in 1976 and defeated Helmut
*Schmidt to become Chancellor 1982–98. He played
a central role in the reunification of Germany when
the Federal and Democratic Republics combined
in 1990. In November 1996 he became the longest
serving German Chancellor since *Bismarck.
Defeated in September 1998, in December 1999 his
party was investigated for taking illegal donations.
Kohl suffered from a long period of ill health after
2008.
Kohlrausch, Friedrich Wilhelm Georg (1840–
1910). German physicist. He was best known for the
accurate measuring methods he introduced into many
branches of physics and for his pioneer investigations
into the conductivity of electrolytes. His improved
techniques and his statement of the principle now
known as Kohlrausch’s Law put the measurement
of conductivity on a sound quantitative basis for the
first time.
Koivisto, Mauno Henrik (1923– ). Finnish
politician. A carpenter at a dockyard who gained a
doctorate in economics, he led the Social Democrats
and was Prime Minister 1968–70 and 1979–82,
succeeding U. K. *Kekkonen as President of Finland
1982–94.
Kokoschka, Oskar (1886–1980). Austrian painter.
He developed a very personal and imaginative
Expressionist style: vivid colouring is combined with
a sense of movement in the town scenes, landscapes
and portraits for which, apart from his stage settings,
he was best known. He was the lover of Alma *Mahler
1912–15. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he
maintained traditional links with the old masters
and preserved with penetrating insight the individual
characteristics of the scenery and personalities he
portrayed. In 1919 he became a professor at Dresden,
then lived in Vienna (1931–34), Prague (1934–38),
London (1938–53) and Switzerland. He became a
British subject in 1947. He also wrote several plays.
Goldscheider, L., Kokoschka. 3rd ed. 1967.
Kołakowski, Leszek (1927–2009). Polish political
philosopher. Professor of Philosophy at Warsaw
University 1959–68, he was expelled for his incisive
criticisms of Marxism. He became a senior Fellow at
All Souls, Oxford, 1970–2009 and also taught in the
US and Canada. His books include Main Currents
of Marxism (1976–78), Metaphysical Horror (1988),
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