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Dictionary of World Biography
theories, since generally accepted. Enemies speculated
that Keith had originated the ‘Piltdown man’ hoax
(1912) but his reputation was damaged when fraud
was discovered. The culprit was almost certainly the
alleged finder, Charles Dawson. Keith’s books include
Antiquity of Man (1915) and New Theory of Human
Evolution (1948).
Keith, Sir A., Autobiography. 1950.
Keith, James Francis Edward (1696–1758). Scottish
soldier of fortune. Known, because of an office
hereditary in his family, as Marshal Keith, after taking
part in the Jacobite rising (1715) he became a colonel
in the Spanish army. In 1728 he was made a general
when serving for Russia and made a name for himself
in the Turkish and Swedish wars. In 1747 he left the
Russian service and was immediately employed as
field marshal by *Friedrich II (‘the Great’) of Prussia.
He fought for him in the Seven Years’ War during
which he was killed.
Kekkonen, Urho Kaleva (1900–1986). Finnish
politician. A lawyer and popular athlete, he fought
with the Whites during the civil war (1919) and
joined the Agrarian Party. He was legal counsellor
of the Agrarian Party and an administrative secretary
of the Agriculture Department 1932–36 when he
entered parliament in 1936. He served as Minister of
Justice 1936–37, 1944–46, Minister of the Interior
1937–39, 1950–51, Chairman of the Finnish
Olympic Games Committee 1938–46, Chief of the
Bureau of Displaced Persons 1940–43 and Speaker
of the Parliament 1948–50. In 1944 he assisted J. K.
*Paasikivi in negotiating peace with the USSR and
devoted his career to maintaining the ‘Paasikivi line’
(neutrality, no anti-Soviet policies, but no Russian
domestic intervention). Prime Minister 1950–53,
1954–56, he was defeated for the presidency by
Paasikivi in 1950 but elected in 1956, holding office
for a record term, retiring in 1981.
Jakobsen, M., Finnish Neutrality. 1968; Kekkonen,
U., Neutrality the Finnish Position. 1970.
Kekulé von Stradonitz, Friedrich August (1829–
1896). German chemist. Professor of chemistry at
Ghent 1858–67 and Bonn 1867–96, he laid the
foundations of structural organic chemistry with
his discovery (1858) of the quadrivalence of carbon
and of the ability of carbon atoms to link with one
another in chains. He was thus able to systematise
the chemistry of the aliphatic compounds. He did
the same for aromatic compounds when he devised
(1865) the now familiar ring formula for benzene: the
resolution of this problem came in a dream as he was
dozing on a bus and he saw the elements dancing.
He convened the First International Chemical
Congress at Karlsruhe in 1860, and received the
Copley Medal in 1885.
456
Keller, Gottfried (1819–1890). Swiss author.
He went to Munich to study art but soon turned to
literature, remaining in Germany, latterly in Berlin,
until 1855, when he returned to Switzerland. His
long, vivid and partly autobiographical novel, Der
Grüne Heinrich (1854), achieved little popularity
until it was revised and given a happy ending.
He achieved most success with his humorous short
stories of Swiss life: *Delius’s opera A Village Romeo
and Juliet was based on one of them.
Lindsay, J. M., Gottfried Keller: Life and Works. 1969.
Keller, Helen Adams (1880–1968). American author
and lecturer. She became blind and deaf at 19 months
of age, after scarlet fever, but later learned to read
Braille, to write and speak. Her teacher and constant
companion from 1887 was Anne Sullivan (1866–
1936). She became a symbol of human determination
to overcome physical handicaps and an inspiration
for all similarly disabled. In 1904 she graduated from
Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Mass. She toured the
world lecturing and wrote several books, e.g. The Story
of My Life (1902), The World I Live In (1908) and Let
Us Have Faith (1940).
Tribble, J. W. and A., Helen Keller. 1973.
Kellogg, Frank Billings (1856–1937). American
Republican politician. A successful corporation
lawyer, he served as US Senator from Minnesota
1917–23, and was US Ambassador in Great Britain
1924–25 and Secretary of State 1925–29. He worked
for the Pact of Paris (Briand-Kellogg Pact, 1928) by
which 15 nations renounced war as an instrument of
policy. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (1929)
and became an associate judge of the Permanent
Court of International Justice 1930–36.
Ellis, L. E., Frank B. Kellogg and American Foreign
Relations, 1925–1929. 1961.
Kellogg, Will Keith (1860–1951). American
manufacturer. In 1894 he developed the first
breakfast cereal (wheat flakes) as a health food for an
Adventist sanatorium at Battle Creek, Michigan, run
by his brother John Harvey Kellogg (1852–1943).
Corn flakes soon followed. Kellogg’s principal rival,
General Foods, was founded by C(harles) W(illiam)
Post (1854–1914) who also produced Postum
(a coffee substitute), Grape-Nuts and Post Toasties at
Battle Creek.
Kelly, Ellsworth (1923–2015). American painter and
sculptor. Trained in Boston and Paris, his powerful
hard-edged abstract paintings made striking use of
primary colours and he was represented in major
galleries.
Kelly, Grace (Princess Grace of Monaco) (1929–
1982). American actor. The daughter of a Philadelphia
industrialist, she made 11 films in her brief career
(1951–56) and her good looks, sexual elegance and
cool style brought her international acclaim. She won