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Control Group vs. Experimental Group
Exposed to IV
Control Group
The control group acts as a baseline
comparison that helps determine
whether the I.V has affected the D.V,
i.e. caused a change in behaviour
Experimental Group
to observe the effects of the IV on
the subjects behaviour
4 methods of sampling include – Convenience Sampling Random Sampling & Stratified sampling Stratified
Random Sampling
Sampling method:
Convenience Sampling aka Opportunity sampling
Selecting readily available subjects without any attempt to make sample representative
of the population of interest
E.g. a Psych teacher using his/her class as subjects
Both time and cost effective
Because sample is not representative of the population, it makes it difficult (unlikely)
that accurate inferences can be made about data obtained, which makes it unlikely that
generalisations can be made to the wider public.
Sampling method:
Random Sampling
Allocates subjects from the population to form part of the sample, so that every
member of the population of interest has an = chance of being selected (i.e. there is
no bias in participant selection)
A sample that doesn’t give everyone (in the population to be studied) an = chance of
being selected is a biased Sample. i.e. it is an unrepresentative (of the population)
If a sample is large enough, then the participant variables will be distributed in the
sample in roughly the same proportions as in the population (so these participant
variables will not affect the DV)
Thus it improves the chances of making accurate inferences about the population
based on results gained from the sample
Not appropriate for all types of research – e.g. If doing research on schizophrenia,
these people (the population of schizophrenics) may be difficult to obtain for
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