Scaling Laws of Memory Retrieval
... groups of neurons, whose activations are a proxy for retrieval. The number of neurons participating conjunctively in the representation of two items defines the ’similarity’ between
those items. Each retrieved item acts as a trigger for the following one according to the
metric of similarities betwe ...
The Testing Effect
... storage capacity, but rather the ability to find what you
need when you need it. Long-term memory is rather
like having a vast amount of closet space—it is easy to
store many items, but it is difficult to retrieve the
needed item in a timely fashion.”
Nádasdy Zoltán Cal Tech
... The neuronal phase code
(Encoding and decoding information by the phase of action potentials)
Experimental evidence, such as task-dependent coherency between single-unit activity and
local field potentials (LFPs), together with the dependency of action potential (AP) initiation
on the subthreshold m ...
... 1. ABSTRACT: The effect of paroxetine on the day--night variations in the synthesis
of 5HT was determined in the rat brain in an effort to gain an insight into the
mechanism of action of this drug. This was done by determining its effect on the
activity of tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting e ...
... timing and LFP exists, the resulting trace
will deviate from zero.
encoding - WordPress.com
... “neurons that fire together wire together” implying that encoding occurred as connections between
neurons were established through repeated use. The 1950s and 60’s saw a shift to the information
processing approach to memory based on the invention of computers, followed by the initial suggestion
talk session i - Stanford Memory Laboratory
... with successfully recollected (episodic retrieval) and unstudied (‘new’) items (encoding of novel information)
both engaging the medial temporal lobe (MTL), such that the contrast between these items types yields no
differential effect .The present findings provide further support for this view, and ...
1 - UCL
... found, the theta range SFC for TP was ~50% higher than that for FN. Further data
analysis was conducted using the spike-triggered average (STA) which is constructed
by averaging LFP segments of ± 400 ms centred on every spike. If a logical
relationship between the spike timing and LFP exists, the re ...
Baddeley 1966 - the Department of Psychology
... Q1- Describe the following classic cognitive study: (8A01s)
The influence of acoustic and semantic similarity on the long-term
memory of word sequences (Baddeley 1966)
This classic cognitive study conducted by Baddeley in 1966 was based on the
influence of acoustic and semantic similarity on the lon ...
... when you are in an environment
similar to the one in which you
encoded the info
lecture 16 - Illinois State University Department of Psychology
... Transfer-appropriate processing
Morris, Bransford, and Franks (1977)
• Participants made either a phonological or semantic judgment
about each item on a word list.
• Study: eagle (yes/no fits clue)
• Deep - The ____ is the US national bird.
• Shallow - rhymes with legal
• The learning was i ...
Emotions and Memory - Stanford Law School
... “When a subject is being asked to remember, very
often the first thing that emerges is something of
the nature of an attitude. The recall is then a
construction, made largely on the basis of this
attitude, and its general effect is that of a
justification of the attitude,” where for Bartlett
levetiracetam and memory function
... participated in the study between January 2010 and
January 2011, and again, we could not be more
grateful for your help. I am sure many of you who
had a MRI with us have not forgotten the
experience; it is likely the most taxing activity in the
study, but those MRI sessions produced stunning
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... region. Time dependent associations between exclusion events and self-reported distress
about the rejection/exclusion experience were also evident for slow wave neural activity.
Greater distress was associated with a more negative frontal slow wave and a larger late
positive potential (LPP), with ch ...
... Macaque. It is more challenging to select options when their rewards are more
similar than when they’re more difference. It’s even more difficult when there are
multiple options. mOFC damage influences how much the third option influences
the choice in options. Four monkeys were lesioned in the mOFC ...
... neurons in V1/V2 as well
as V4 modulate their
responses in concert with
Monkey’s percept, as if
participating in a
process. However, some
neurons in all areas do not
modulate their responses.
Thus the conscious percept
appears to be correlated
with the a ...
... Quiz 3
1. Name one of Pavlov’s neutral stimuli.
2. According to Watson, his findings discredited
the work of __________.
3. Who/what was superstitious?
4. In the past 30 years there have been at least
three congressional hearings on _________
5. Why would an American travel to Germany to
Encoding time in fear memories
... pathologies are continuously increasing in our modern society. In
animals, fear memories can be assessed through a very popular
paradigm, fear conditioning. In this task, a sensory stimulus (for example
an odor) is presented to the animal and after a fixed interval (ex. 20sec) a ...
Power Shifts Track Serial Position and Modulate Encoding in
... neural recordings taken during the encoding phase of a learning task can be used to identify differences in the way the
brain processes of early and later list items.
Recent human neuroimaging and electrophysiological recording studies have shed considerable light on the neural
correlates of memory ...
The Placebo Effect
... • Mr. Wright’s tumors had shrunk by half, and after 10 more days of
treatment he was discharged from the hospital. And yet the other
patients in the hospital who had received Krebiozen showed no
• Krebiozen is not known to possess any therapeutic value. Attempts to
analyze its compositi ...
... • The best processing is through rehearsal
Occipital Nerve Stimulation Suppresses Nociception
... • ONS is an emerging therapy for chronic
daily headache (e.g. chronic migraine)
• Migraine pain may result from sensitization
of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis
• This study quantifies the effects of ONS on
these neurons in a rat model of central
What creates a valuable cue? The underestimated importance of a
... Processing (TAP), argues that memories can be defined by the cognitive operations or activity
engaged during the initial creation of that memory. Retrieval is facilitated when the earlier
cognitive operations are reactivated (Morris et al., 1977). Neuropsychological models states that
TAP is a by-pr ...
Difference due to memory
Difference due to memory (Dm) indexes differences in neural activity during the study phase of an experiment for items that subsequently are remembered compared to items that are later forgotten. It is mainly discussed as an event-related potential (ERP) effect that appears in studies employing a subsequent memory paradigm, in which ERPs are recorded when a participant is studying a list of materials and trials are sorted as a function of whether they go on to be remembered or not in the test phase. For meaningful study material, such as words or line drawings, items that are subsequently remembered typically elicit a more positive waveform during the study phase (see Main Paradigms for further information on subsequent memory). This difference typically occurs in the range of 400–800 milliseconds (ms) and is generally greatest over centro-parietal recording sites, although these characteristics are modulated by many factors.