دراسة تأثير مدى من الجرع الاشعاعيه على بعض الخواص
... and only if for every fuzzy open q -nbd -of x p , Cl( ) is
.The set of all fuzzy -cluster points of is called the fuzzy -cluster of and is
denoted by Cl ( ) .A fuzzy set is fuzzy -closed if and only if Cl ( ) .
Definition 1-3 
A function f : ( X , 1 ) (Y , 2 ) is said ...
Risk - Palisade Corporation
... Traditionally, analyses combine single “point” estimates of a model's
variables to predict a single result. This is the standard Excel model
— a spreadsheet with a single estimate of results. Estimates of model
variables must be used because the values which actually will occur
are not known with ce ...
neuronal reward and decision signals: from theories to data
... Schultz W. Neuronal Reward and Decision Signals: From Theories to Data. Physiol Rev 95:
853–951, 2015. Published June 24, 2015; doi:10.1152/physrev.00023.2014.—Rewards are crucial objects that induce learning, approach behavior, choices, and emotions. Whereas emotions are difficult to investigate in ...
- Wiley Online Library
... population defined here as RTN also exists. For example,
a subgroup (45%) of RTN neurons express galanin in
rats (Stornetta et al. 2009). Although all RTN neurons
examined so far have some type of respiratory modulation
(Fig. 3C), this modulation comes in several patterns
suggesting that RTN neuron ...
Contrast-dependence of surround suppression in
... and surround of a typical V1 neuron: (i) the high-contrast summation RF (sRFhigh; white area inside dashed circle), and (ii) the low-contrast summation RF (sRFlow; area inside solid
black circle) are measured by presenting high- or low-contrast grating patches, respectively, of increasing radius, an ...
Functional Microarchitecture of Cat Primary Visual Cortex
... We found that preferred direction, preferred orientation, and orientation tuning width were
more clustered than would be expected from a random distribution. However, preferred phase,
direction selectivity, relative modulation (F1/DC), and spatial frequency preference and tuning
width showed no such ...
Role of the Indirect Pathway of the Basal Ganglia
... rightward moving dots, are fed into leftpreferring and right-preferring cortical modules CxL and CxR, respectively, in a model
cortical network (Fig. 1). The firing times of
each input neuron are sampled from a Poisson
process with a mean rate . The mean depends linearly on the dot coherence leve ...
The effect of selective attention on auditory frequency
... noise depends largely on the differences in neural level representations of the auditory
inputs. The auditory cortex (AC) is tonotopically organized, which means that the frequency information is mapped to the cortical topography. Thus, similar frequencies are
processed in close vicinity at AC. The ...
electrophysiological and synaptic properties of rat superior and
... these identified neurons were compared between NT and DOCA-salt HT rats
using intracellular recording techniques. I found that the amplitude of the
depolarization induced by exogenous nicotine is reduced in both vein- and
artery-projecting neurons from HT but not NT rats. Application of exogenous
The role of the basal ganglia in reinforcement learning
... quality of a policy ∏; i.e., calculating the value function of all states given a policy V∏(s). The second is improving a policy; i.e., finding a policy ∏' such that V∏'(s) ≥
V∏(s). These two processes have been combined in many ways in different situations.
When a full description of the environmen ...
Proopiomelanocortin Neurons in Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Are
... The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) receives dense terminations from cranial visceral afferents, including those from the gastrointestinal
(GI) system. Although the NTS integrates peripheral satiety signals and relays this signal to central feeding centers, little is known about
which NTS neurons a ...
What clinical disorders tell us about the neural
... Press are attributed as the original place of publication with the correct citation details given; if an article is subsequently reproduced or disseminated not in its
entirety but only in part or as a derivative work this must be clearly indicated. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.perm ...
Types of artificial neural networks
There are many types of artificial neural networks (ANN).Artificial neural networks are computational models inspired by biological neural networks, and are used to approximate functions that are generally unknown. Particularly, they are inspired by the behaviour of neurons and the electrical signals they convey between input (such as from the eyes or nerve endings in the hand), processing, and output from the brain (such as reacting to light, touch, or heat). The way neurons semantically communicate is an area of ongoing research. Most artificial neural networks bear only some resemblance to their more complex biological counterparts, but are very effective at their intended tasks (e.g. classification or segmentation).Some ANNs are adaptive systems and are used for example to model populations and environments, which constantly change.Neural networks can be hardware- (neurons are represented by physical components) or software-based (computer models), and can use a variety of topologies and learning algorithms.