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In summary; Double blind (D.B) procedure controls both the placebo effect & experimenter
effect, Single blind only controls
Order effect
where the order that a task was completed in a Repeated measures design
has a potentially confounding effect on the DV (hence results)
Types of order
1. Practice effect: performance on the task completed may be better
because of the experience gained in completing the 1st task (not
because of the IV)
2. Boredom effect: participants do worse the 2nd time around due to
boredom/ fatigue (if a long task)
3. History effect: the time interval between repeated testing (if long
term) may lead to changes in participants characteristics, potentially
confounding the effect of the treatment variable
Counterbalancing Involves arranging the order in which the conditions of a repeated
Used to eliminate measures design are completed so that each condition occurs equally
order effect
often in each position. I.e. get half the subjects to do the task under
experimental conditions first, and the other half performing the task
under control conditions 1st and then swapping around.
Confounding variables (the word confound means ‘confuse’)
 Are any variables other than the IV that has had an effect on the DV thus compromising the
results of the experiment.
 They occur when you have results that can’t be attributed to the I.V alone!
 They are systematic, that is they take effect right throughout the experiment
 The effects of the variable on the dependent variable are confused with that of the
independent variable.
 Gender can be a confounding variable because of the genetic & socialised difference
between males & females. E.g. alcohol may more effect on female reaction time, because
males (on average) have a higher body mass. So if a control group had proportionally more
females and the experimental group had proportionally more males, then gender could be a
confounding, because it is uncertain if the alcohol (CV) or the gender (IV) has affected
reaction time (the DV)
 E.g. using a repeated-measures design without counterbalancing, the order effect - could
confound the results
Many Extraneous Variables involve the personal characteristics of the subjects themselves. I.e. gender bias,
aged bias, intelligence levels, etc. These can be minimised by controlling the manner in which the subjects are
allocated to groups which is part of the experimental design
3 of these Experimental designs include
1. Repeated measures
2. Matched Pairs
3. Independent groups.
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