Parts of the Cell Prokaryotic Cells Pili: attachment structures on the surface of some prokaryotes Nucleoid: region where the cell’s DNA is located (not enclosed by a membrane) Ribosomes: organelles that synthesize proteins Bacterial chromosome (a) A typical rod-shaped bacterium Plasma membrane: membrane enclosing the cytoplasm Cell wall: rigid structure outside the plasma membrane Capsule: jelly-like outer coating of many prokaryotes 0.5 µm Flagella: locomotion organelles of some bacteria (b) A thin section through the bacterium Bacillus coagulans (TEM) Animal Cell • Cell Membrane • Various Shapes • Obtain Energy Plant Cell • Cell Membrane & Cell Wall • Boxlike • Photosynthesis • Chlorophyll • Animal Cell Does Not have a Cell Wall Organelles • Parts of the cell • Cytoplasm- Fluid outside of the nucleus containing organelles. Nucleus • Control center of the cell containing the DNA & Chromosomes. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) • Highway system for moving information from the nucleus. 2 Types of ER 1. Rough- has ribosomes 2. Smooth- lacks Ribosomes Ribosomes • Place where proteins are made. Golgi Apparatus • “Shipping & Receiving Center” • Takes proteins from ribosome and ships them to the parts of the cell they are needed. Moving Information in the Cell • 1. Nucleus (DNA/RNA) • 2. ER • 3. Ribosomes • 4. Golgi • 5. Cell Lysosome • “Cleanup Crew/Janitor” removes waste from the cell. Vacuoles • Cellular Storage unit • Animal Cells- stores energy • Plants Cells- stores water Mitochondria • “Power Plant” makes the energy in animal cells (ATP) • Cell Respiration Chloroplast • Only in Plant Cells. • Collects sunlight in plants for photosynthesis. Cilia and Flagella • Cilia- short hairlike projections, used for movement • Flagella- tail like structure used for movement Cytoskeleton • Network of protein filaments that help maintain cell shape and are involved in movement • 2 filaments that make up cytoskeleton • Microfilament- threadlike structure made of a protein called ACTIN that aid in movement • Microtubules- Hollow structures made up of proteins known as tubulins used to maintain shape. Important in cell division where they form mitotic spindles (Cilia and flagella) Centrioles • Located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division. • NOT FOUND IN PLANT CELS!!! Boundaries of the Cell Cell Membrane Outer boundary of animal cells Cell Wall Outer boundary of plant cells Lipid Bilayer • Double layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes. Provides a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings.