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Transcript
Parts of the Cell
Prokaryotic Cells
Pili: attachment structures on
the surface of some prokaryotes
Nucleoid: region where the
cell’s DNA is located (not
enclosed by a membrane)
Ribosomes: organelles that
synthesize proteins
Bacterial
chromosome
(a) A typical
rod-shaped bacterium
Plasma membrane: membrane
enclosing the cytoplasm
Cell wall: rigid structure outside
the plasma membrane
Capsule: jelly-like outer coating
of many prokaryotes
0.5 µm
Flagella: locomotion
organelles of
some bacteria
(b) A thin section through the
bacterium Bacillus coagulans
(TEM)
Animal Cell
• Cell Membrane
• Various Shapes
• Obtain Energy
Plant Cell
• Cell Membrane & Cell
Wall
• Boxlike
• Photosynthesis
• Chlorophyll
• Animal Cell Does Not have a Cell Wall
Organelles
• Parts of the cell
• Cytoplasm- Fluid
outside of the
nucleus containing
organelles.
Nucleus
•
Control center of the
cell containing the DNA
& Chromosomes.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
• Highway system for
moving information
from the nucleus.
2 Types of ER
1. Rough- has ribosomes
2. Smooth- lacks
Ribosomes
Ribosomes
• Place where proteins are made.
Golgi Apparatus
• “Shipping & Receiving
Center”
• Takes proteins from
ribosome and ships
them to the parts of
the cell they are
needed.
Moving Information in the Cell
• 1. Nucleus
(DNA/RNA)
• 2. ER
• 3. Ribosomes
• 4. Golgi
• 5. Cell
Lysosome
• “Cleanup Crew/Janitor” removes waste
from the cell.
Vacuoles
• Cellular Storage unit
• Animal Cells- stores energy
• Plants Cells- stores water
Mitochondria
• “Power Plant” makes
the energy in animal
cells (ATP)
• Cell Respiration
Chloroplast
• Only in Plant Cells.
• Collects sunlight in
plants for
photosynthesis.
Cilia and Flagella
• Cilia- short hairlike
projections, used for
movement
• Flagella- tail like
structure used for
movement
Cytoskeleton
• Network of protein
filaments that help
maintain cell shape
and are involved in
movement
• 2 filaments that make up
cytoskeleton
• Microfilament- threadlike
structure made of a protein called
ACTIN that aid in movement
• Microtubules- Hollow structures
made up of proteins known as
tubulins used to maintain shape.
Important in cell division where
they form mitotic spindles (Cilia
and flagella)
Centrioles
• Located near the
nucleus and help to
organize cell division.
• NOT FOUND IN
PLANT CELS!!!
Boundaries of the Cell
Cell Membrane
Outer boundary of
animal cells
Cell Wall
Outer boundary
of plant cells
Lipid Bilayer
• Double layered sheet
that forms the core
of nearly all cell
membranes. Provides
a strong barrier
between the cell and
its surroundings.