Cell Parts and Functions Organelle • Tiny cell structures that carry out specific functions. • ALL CELLS Cell Wall • Rigid layer of non-living material that surrounds the cell. • PLANT & BACTERIA CELLS Cell Membrane • Controls what substances come into and out of a cell. • ALL CELLS Nucleus • The control center. It directs all of the cell’s activities. • PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS. Nuclear Membrane • Protects the nucleus and controls what goes into and out of it. • PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS. Chromatin • The genetic material, or instructions that direct the functions of the cell. • PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS. Nucleolus • Makes ribosomes. • PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS Cytoplasm • The region between the cell membrane and the nucleus. Many organelles are found here and this fluid is constantly in motion. • ALL CELLS Mitochondria • Produce most of the energy that the cell needs to carry out its functions. • PLANT AND ANIMAL Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) • A series of passageways that carry proteins and other materials from one part of a cell to another. • PLANT AND ANIMAL Ribosomes • Factories that produce proteins. • ALL CELLS Golgi Bodies • The cell’s mailroom. They receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the ER, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell. • PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS Chloroplast • Capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce energy for the cell. • PLANT CELLS Vacuoles • The storage area for the cell. They store food and other necessary materials. • PLANT AND ANIMAL Lysosomes • They contain chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones. They also break down old cell parts and release substances so that they can be used again. • PLANT AND ANIMAL.