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Transcript
• In vertebrates
– The CNS is composed of the brain and spinal
cord
– The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is
composed of nerves and ganglia
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 49-4
Central nervous
system (CNS)
Brain
Spinal
cord
Peripheral nervous
system (PNS)
Cranial
nerves
Ganglia
outside
CNS
Spinal
nerves
Organization of the Vertebrate Nervous System
• The spinal cord conveys information from the
brain to the PNS
• The spinal cord also produces reflexes
independently of the brain
• A reflex is the body’s automatic response to a
stimulus
– For example, a doctor uses a mallet to trigger
a knee-jerk reflex
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 49-3
Quadriceps
muscle
Cell body of
sensory neuron in
dorsal root
ganglion
Gray
matter
White
matter
Hamstring
muscle
Spinal cord
(cross section)
Sensory neuron
Motor neuron
Interneuron
The Peripheral Nervous System
• The PNS transmits information to and from the
CNS and regulates movement and the internal
environment
• In the PNS, afferent neurons transmit
information to the CNS and efferent neurons
transmit information away from the CNS
• Cranial nerves originate in the brain and
mostly terminate in organs of the head and
upper body
• Spinal nerves originate in the spinal cord and
extend to parts of the body below the head
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 49-7-1
PNS
Afferent
(sensory) neurons
Efferent
neurons
Motor
system
Locomotion
Autonomic
nervous system
Hearing
Fig. 49-7-2
PNS
Afferent
(sensory) neurons
Efferent
neurons
Autonomic
nervous system
Motor
system
Locomotion
Sympathetic
division
Parasympathetic
division
Hormone
Gas exchange Circulation action
Hearing
Enteric
division
Digestion
• The PNS has two functional components: the
motor system and the autonomic nervous
system
• The motor system carries signals to skeletal
muscles and is voluntary
• The autonomic nervous system regulates the
internal environment in an involuntary manner
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
• The autonomic nervous system has
sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric
divisions
• The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
have antagonistic effects on target organs
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
• The sympathetic division correlates with the
“fight-or-flight” response
• The parasympathetic division promotes a
return to “rest and digest”
• The enteric division controls activity of the
digestive tract, pancreas, and gallbladder
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 49-8
Sympathetic division
Parasympathetic division
Action on target organs:
Action on target organs:
Constricts pupil
of eye
Dilates pupil
of eye
Stimulates salivary
gland secretion
Inhibits salivary
gland secretion
Constricts
bronchi in lungs
Cervical
Sympathetic
ganglia
Relaxes bronchi
in lungs
Slows heart
Accelerates heart
Stimulates activity
of stomach and
intestines
Inhibits activity
of stomach and
intestines
Thoracic
Stimulates activity
of pancreas
Inhibits activity
of pancreas
Stimulates
gallbladder
Stimulates glucose
release from liver;
inhibits gallbladder
Lumbar
Stimulates
adrenal medulla
Promotes emptying
of bladder
Promotes erection
of genitals
Inhibits emptying
of bladder
Sacral
Synapse
Promotes ejaculation and
vaginal contractions
Concept 49.3: The cerebral cortex controls
voluntary movement and cognitive functions
• Each side of the cerebral cortex has four lobes:
frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal
• Each lobe contains primary sensory areas and
association areas where information is
integrated
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 49-15
Frontal lobe
Parietal lobe
Speech
Frontal
association
area
Somatosensory
association
area
Taste
Reading
Speech
Hearing
Smell
Auditory
association
area
Visual
association
area
Vision
Temporal lobe
Occipital lobe
Information Processing in the Cerebral Cortex
• The cerebral cortex receives input from
sensory organs and somatosensory receptors
• Specific types of sensory input enter the
primary sensory areas of the brain lobes
• Adjacent areas process features in the sensory
input and integrate information from different
sensory areas
• In the somatosensory and motor cortices,
neurons are distributed according to the body
part that generates sensory input or receives
motor input
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 49-16
Parietal lobe
Frontal lobe
Leg
Genitals
Toes
Jaw
Primary
motor cortex
Abdominal
organs
Primary
somatosensory cortex