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GENETIC ENGINEERING Unit 6 What Animal is This? Genetic Engineering The addition, deletion, or changing of DNA in order to get a desired trait in an organism. Genetic Engineering Techniques 1) DNA Restriction Enzyme – Splices DNA at the desired gene in an organism 2) PCR of desired gene – Replicate DNA over and over 3) Put gene in bacteria – Brings DNA to other organism’s cells 4) Screening for Phenotype – Hope DNA made it to the right spot… Uses of Genetic Engineering (GE)/Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) ■ Agriculture ■ Animals ■ Medicine and pharmaceutical ■ Gene therapy ■ Human Interest Agriculture ■ Desired traits are picked and used to breed ■ DNA is physically changed for traits ■ All business’ want more MONEY Examples: a) Plants that survive freezing temperatures b) Plants resistant to pests c) Flavor Savor tomato d) Bigger products Animals ■ Desired traits are picked and used to breed ■ DNA is physically changed for traits Examples: a) Cows with the most muscle are selected to breed b) Chickens without feathers Medicine Example: ■ DNA change in bacteria to make human insulin for diabetics Gene Therapy ■ Healthy genes used to treat patients ■ Healthy genes adds healthy protein to body– this is good! Human Interest ■ Cloning – 1996: first mammal cloned (Dolly the sheep) ■ Designer babies – Pick traits of offspring Controversy ■ Ethical issues ■ Unknown effects Genetic Engineers As a genetic engineer, you'll alter genes in order to improve the biological capabilities of humans, plants and animals. In this field, your main goal is to help people lead quality lives. As a gene therapist, you'll treat human patients with genetic illnesses. Otherwise, you might work in a non-medical environment as a biochemist or biophysicist, exploring living organisms such as plants used as food crops. You'll typically work full-time with a consistent schedule. Salary ranges from $70,000-$190,000. Major-Health Science, Biology, etc.