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1. Selective breeding is a form of genetic technology that produces organisms
with desired traits (disease resistance, juiciest berries, larger fruit, fancier
flowers, best milk-producing cows)
2. Genetic engineering is a faster & more reliable method of producing desired
traits in a population. Genetic engineering is used by humans for practical
3. The process of recombinant DNA technology takes DNA from 1 organism,
cuts it into small fragments, & inserts it into a host organism of the same or a
different species. The host organism receiving recombinant DNA is called a
transgenic organism.
4. Transgenic bacteria are most easily cloned & have been used in:
a) industry: clean up oil spills & extract valuable minerals in mining
b) medicine: produce growth hormone, insulin, blood cells, & vaccines
c) agriculture: prevent frost damage to strawberries, tomatoes that ripen
without becoming soft, & nitrogen-fixing genes
5. Transgenic animals help scientists study human diseases & treatments.
Ranchers & dairy farmers can clone - create genetically identical copies - of
productive, healthy animals to increase yields.
6. Transgenic plants have been engineered to resist herbicides, increase crop
yield, produce internal pesticides, resist disease, or increase nutrient content.
7. The Human Genome Project is an international effort to completely map &
sequence the human genome (60,000-100,000 genes on 46 chromosomes).
Once gene location & DNA sequence are known:
a) prenatal diagnosis of a genetic disorder may be made & mutated gene can
be replaced with normal gene before birth
b) gene therapy may allow individuals who inherit a serious genetic disorder
to have normal genes inserted into their cells to correct the disorder
c) DNA fingerprinting - enzymes cut DNA samples (hair, skin, blood/not red,
other body fluids) into smaller segments separated by size in a process
called electrophoresis - colored DNA segments appear as bands that
create a DNA fingerprint for identifying individuals (mummies...)