... Biology 6C
The DNA Connection
... The order of nitrogen bases along a gene
forms a specific genetic code that
specifies what type of protein will be
... The Protein Code
• The genetic code is redundant but not ambiguous;
no codon specifies more than one amino acid
• Codons must be read in
the correct reading frame
(correct groupings) in order
for the specified polypeptide
to be produced
• The genetic code is nearly
Hierarchy of Genetics
... - are sections of DNA on a chromosome
- They determine the traits that show up in an organism
-Different forms of a trait that a gene may have are
Cell Transformation Chapter 13-3
... B. Genetic Marker- can be a gene for antibiotic
resistance that is spliced onto the gene that
researchers want expressed.
1. Use a restriction enzyme to cut plasmid and
use same enzyme to cut out segment of
2. This creates ends with nucleotides that
match “sticky ends”
3. Allows bacteria with th ...
Genetic Engineering Short Notes
... 1. Genetic engineering- remaking genes for
2. Recombinant DNA- DNA made from two or
more different organisms
3. Restriction enzyme- enzymes that recognize
short specific DNA sequences and that cut the
4. Plasmid- small, circular DNA molecules that
can replicate independa ...
Genes Chromosomes and DNA
... A chromosome contains hundreds to thousands of genes.
Every human cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes.
A trait is any gene-determined characteristic and is often determined by more than one gene.
Some traits are caused by abnormal genes that are inherited or ...
How many phosphate bonds are required to build a protein with 50
... build a protein with 50 amino acids?
What kind of cancer causing allele is the
result of a loss of function mutation?
What initiates transcription from the early
promoter of the Sxl gene?
is the function of amino acyl RNA synthetase?
What In recombinant DNA technology what is
the name of a carrier o ...
ANNEX B: Selected Biotechnology Terms
... Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) – a method for the selective amplification of a DNA bas sequence using heatstable polymerase and two 20-base primers. Because the newly synthesized DNA strands can serve as templates for
the same primer sequences successive rounds of primer annealing, strand elongatio ...
DNA and Chromosomes
... What is the relationship between DNA, chromosomes, and any organism?
Drag and drop the descriptive phrase to the correct column, thereby helping us to describe the relationships
between these important components of inheritance.
2.5.4. DNA Revision Qs
... 4 Heredity is the passing on of features from one generation to another by means of
DNA and Protein Synthesis
... • The DNA code serves as a blueprint for making
• Examples of proteins: hormones, enzymes,
neurotransmitters, receptors, components of
• Proteins are composed of amino acids.
• Codons are a sequence of three bases that
code for a specific amino acid.
Artificial gene synthesis
Artificial gene synthesis is a method in synthetic biology that is used to create artificial genes in the laboratory. Currently based on solid-phase DNA synthesis, it differs from molecular cloning and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that the user does not have to begin with preexisting DNA sequences. Therefore, it is possible to make a completely synthetic double-stranded DNA molecule with no apparent limits on either nucleotide sequence or size. The method has been used to generate functional bacterial or yeast chromosomes containing approximately one million base pairs. Recent research also suggests the possibility of creating novel nucleobase pairs in addition to the two base pairs in nature, which could greatly expand the possibility of expanding the genetic code.Synthesis of the first complete gene, a yeast tRNA, was demonstrated by Har Gobind Khorana and coworkers in 1972. Synthesis of the first peptide- and protein-coding genes was performed in the laboratories of Herbert Boyer and Alexander Markham, respectively.Commercial gene synthesis services are now available from numerous companies worldwide, some of which have built their business model around this task. Current gene synthesis approaches are most often based on a combination of organic chemistry and molecular biological techniques and entire genes may be synthesized ""de novo"", without the need for precursor template DNA. Gene synthesis has become an important tool in many fields of recombinant DNA technology including heterologous gene expression, vaccine development, gene therapy and molecular engineering. The synthesis of nucleic acid sequences is often more economical than classical cloning and mutagenesis procedures.