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Transcript
HA Introduction to Genetics Practice Exam
True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
____
1. Genetics is the branch of biology that involves the study of how different traits are transmitted from one
generation to the next.
____
2. Mendel discovered predictable patterns in the inheritance of traits.
____
3. Plants in Mendel’s P generation were all heterozygous.
____
4. Mendel based his principles on his observations of pea plants.
____
5. The scientific study of heredity is called genetics.
____
6. In Mendel’s experiments with the flower color of pea plants, only the parental generation produced white
flowers.
____
7. A dominant allele masks the effect of a recessive allele.
____
8. Mendel concluded that the patterns of inheritance are determined entirely by the environment.
____
9. The law of independent assortment was proposed by Mendel to explain his observations of inheritance patterns.
____ 10. Genes on chromosomes are the units of inheritance.
____ 11. The allele for a recessive trait is usually represented by a capital letter.
____ 12. A Mendelian factor is equivalent to an allele.
____ 13. Current scientific knowledge supports Mendel’s principles.
____ 14. Heterozygous individuals have two of the same alleles for a particular gene.
____ 15. In heterozygous individuals, only the recessive allele achieves expression.
____ 16. A Punnett square represents the phenotype of an organism.
____ 17. Probability is the likelihood that a certain event will occur.
____ 18. A probability of 1/4 is equal to a probability of 75 percent.
____ 19. The physical appearance of an individual organism, as determined by the genes it has inherited from its parents,
is called its genotype.
____ 20. The dominant allele for tallness in pea plants is represented by the letter t.
____ 21. Individuals must exhibit a trait in order for it to appear in their offspring.
____ 22. In codominance, two alleles are expressed at the same time.
____ 23. All genes have only two alleles.
____ 24. A dihybrid cross involves two pairs of contrasting traits.
____ 25. Crosses involving a study of one gene are called monohybrid crosses.
Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 26. The scientific study of heredity is called
____ 27.
____ 28.
____ 29.
____ 30.
____ 31.
a. meiosis.
c. genetics.
b. crossing-over.
d. pollination.
Mendel obtained his P generation by allowing the plants to
a. self-pollinate.
c. assort independently.
b. cross-pollinate.
d. segregate.
What is the probability that the offspring of a homozygous dominant individual and a homozygous recessive
individual will exhibit the dominant phenotype?
a. 0.25
c. 0.66
b. 0.5
d. 1.0
True-breeding pea plants always
a. are pollinated by hand.
b. produce offspring with either form of a trait.
c. produce offspring with only one form of a trait.
d. are heterozygous.
The first filial (F1) generation is the result of
a. cross-pollination among parents and the next generation.
b. crosses between individuals of the parental generation.
c. crosses between the offspring of a parental cross.
d. self-fertilization between parental stock.
F2 : F1 ::
a. P : F1
c. F1 : P
b. F1 : F2
d. dominant trait : recessive trait
____ 32. The passing of traits from parents to offspring is called
a. genetics.
c. development.
b. heredity.
d. maturation.
____ 33. A genetic trait that appears in every generation of offspring is called
a. dominant.
c. recessive.
b. phenotypic.
d. superior.
____ 34. Mendel’s finding that the inheritance of one trait had no effect on the inheritance of another became known as
the
a. law of dominance.
c. law of separate convenience.
b. law of universal inheritance.
d. law of independent assortment.
____ 35. To describe how traits can disappear and reappear in a certain pattern from generation to generation, Mendel
proposed
a. the law of independent assortment.
b. the law of segregation.
c. the law of genotypes.
d. that the F2 generation will only produce purple flowers.
____ 36. The law of segregation states that
a. alleles of a gene separate from each other during meiosis.
b. different alleles of a gene can never be found in the same organism.
c. each gene of an organism ends up in a different gamete.
d. each gene is found on a different molecule of DNA.
____ 37. When Mendel crossed pea plants with two contrasting traits, such as flower color and plant height,
a. these experiments led to his law of segregation.
b. he found that the inheritance of one trait did not influence the inheritance of the other trait.
c. he found that the inheritance of one trait influenced the inheritance of the other trait.
d. these experiments were considered failures because the importance of his work was not
recognized.
____ 38. The phenotype of an organism
a. represents its genetic composition.
b. reflects all the traits that are actually expressed.
c. occurs only in dominant pure organisms.
d. cannot be seen.
____ 39. If an individual has two recessive alleles for the same trait, the individual is said to be
a. homozygous for the trait.
c. heterozygous for the trait.
b. haploid for the trait.
d. mutated.
____ 40. Tallness (T) is dominant to shortness (t) in pea plants. Which of the following represents a genotype of a pea
plant that is heterozygous for tallness?
a. T
c. Tt
b. TT
d. tt
In humans, having freckles (F) is dominant to not having freckles (f). The inheritance of these traits can be
studied using a Punnett square similar to the one shown below.
____ 41. Refer to the illustration above. The genotype represented in box “1” in the Punnett square would
a. be homozygous for freckles.
b. have an extra freckles chromosome.
c. be heterozygous for freckles.
d. have freckles chromosomes.
____ 42. Refer to the illustration above. The genotype in box “3” of the Punnett square is
a. FF.
c. ff.
b. Ff.
d. None of the above
____ 43. How many different phenotypes can be produced by a pair of codominant alleles?
a. 1
c. 3
b. 2
d. 4
____ 44. Refer to the illustration above. The phenotype represented by the cell labeled “1” is
a. green, inflated.
c. yellow, inflated.
b. green, constricted.
d. yellow, constricted.
____ 45. Refer to the illustration above. The genotype represented by the cell labeled “2” is
a. GgIi.
c. GI.
b. GGIi.
d. Gi.
In rabbits, black fur (B) is dominant to brown fur (b). Consider the following cross between two rabbits.
____ 46. Refer to the illustration above. The device shown, which is used to determine the probable outcome of genetic
crosses, is called a
a. Mendelian box.
c. Genetic graph.
b. Punnett square.
d. Phenotypic paradox.
____ 47. Refer to the illustration above. Both of the parents in the cross are
a. black.
c. homozygous dominant.
b. brown.
d. homozygous recessive.
____ 48. Refer to the illustration above. The phenotype of the offspring indicated by box “3” would be
a. brown.
c. a mixture of brown and black.
b. black.
d. The phenotype cannot be determined.
____ 49. Refer to the illustration above. The genotypic ratio of the F 1 generation would be
a. 1:1.
c. 1:3.
b. 3:1.
d. 1:2:1.
____ 50. Refer to the illustration above. The phenotype represented by the cell labeled “1” is
a. round, yellow.
c. wrinkled, yellow.
____ 51.
____ 52.
____ 53.
____ 54.
____ 55.
b. round, green.
d. wrinkled, green.
Refer to the illustration above. The genotype represented by the cell labeled “2” is
a. RRYY.
c. RrYy.
b. RrYY.
d. rrYy.
Refer to the illustration above. Which of the following cells represents the same phenotype as the cell labeled
“X”?
a. “3”
c. “5”
b. “4”
d. “6”
An organism that has inherited two of the same alleles of a gene from its parents is called
a. hereditary.
c. homozygous.
b. heterozygous.
d. a mutation.
The difference between a monohybrid cross and a dihybrid cross is that
a. monohybrid crosses involve traits for which only one allele exists, while dihybrid traits
involve two alleles.
b. monohybrid crosses involve self-pollination, while dihybrid crosses involve crosspollination.
c. monohybrid crosses involve one gene; dihybrid crosses involve two genes.
d. dihybrid crosses require two Punnett squares; monohybrid crosses need only one.
A cross of two individuals for a single contrasting trait is called
a. monohybrid.
c. dominant.
b. dihybrid.
d. codominant.
Completion
Complete each statement.
56. A reproductive process in which fertilization occurs within a single plant is ____________________.
57. The transferring of pollen between plants is called ____________________.
58. When two members of the F1 generation are allowed to breed with each other, the offspring are referred to as the
____________________ generation.
59. Mendel called the offspring of the P generation the first filial generation, or ____________________.
60. ____________________ refers to the transmission of traits from parent to offspring in sexually reproducing
organisms.
61. In heterozygous individuals, only the ____________________ allele achieves expression.
62. A trait that is not expressed in the F1 generation resulting from the crossbreeding of two genetically different,
true-breeding organisms is called ____________________.
63. In Mendel’s experiments, a trait that disappeared in the F 1 generation but reappeared in the F2 generation was
always a ____________________.
64. The statement that the members of each pair of alleles separate when gametes are formed is known as the
____________________.
65. Different forms of a particular gene are called ____________________.
66. The cellular process that results in the segregation of Mendel’s factors is ____________________.
67. Mendel formulated two principles known as the laws of ____________________.
68. Different forms of a particular gene are called ____________________.
69. The portion of a DNA molecule containing the coded instructions that result in an individual characteristic of an
organism is called a(n) ____________________.
70. An organism’s ____________________ refers to the set of alleles it has inherited.
71. The appearance of an organism as a result of its genotype is its ____________________.
72. Refer to the illustration above. The cell of the Punnett square labeled “X” represents the phenotype
____________________.
In pea plants, tallness (T) is dominant to shortness (t). Crosses between plants with these traits can be analyzed
using a Punnett square similar to the one shown below.
T
t
T
1
2
t
3
4
73. Refer to the illustration above. The parents shown in the Punnett square could have offspring with a genotype
ratio of ____________________.
74. Refer to the illustration above. Box “2” and box ____________________ in the Punnett square represent plants
that would be heterozygous for the trait for tallness.
75. Refer to the illustration above. The phenotype of the plant that would be represented in box “4” of the Punnett
square would be ____________________.
76. Refer to the illustration above. The genotype of both parents shown in the Punnett square above is
____________________.
77. A situation in which two or more alleles influence a phenotype is called ____________________.
78. A trait controlled by three or more alleles is said to have ____________________.
79. A phenomenon in which a heterozygous individual has a phenotype that is intermediate between the phenotypes
of its two homozygous parents is called ____________________.
80. A cross involving two pairs of contrasting traits is a(n) ____________________ cross.
HA Introduction to Genetics Practice Exam
Answer Section
TRUE/FALSE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
T
T
F
T
T
F
T
F
T
T
F
T
T
F
F
F
T
F
F
F
F
T
F
T
T
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
I
I
II
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
II
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
9-1.1
9-1.1
9-1.1
9-1.1
9-1.1
9-1.1
9-1.2
9-1.3
9-1.3
9-1.4
9-1.4
9-1.4
9-1.5
9-2.1
9-2.1
9-2.1
9-2.1
9-2.1
9-2.2
9-2.2
9-2.3
9-2.3
9-2.3
9-2.4
9-2.4
MULTIPLE CHOICE
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
ANS: C
ANS: A
ANS: D
ANS: C
ANS: B
ANS: C
(is produced by)
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
1
1
1
1
1
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
I
I
I
I
I
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
9-1.1
9-1.1
9-1.1
9-1.1
9-1.1
PTS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
DIF:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
II
1
1
1
1
1
1
OBJ:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
9-1.1
I
I
I
I
I
I
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
9-1.2
9-1.2
9-1.3
9-1.3
9-1.3
9-1.3
1
B
A
D
B
A
B
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
ANS:
B
A
C
A
B
C
A
B
B
A
B
D
A
C
D
C
C
A
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
PTS:
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
DIF:
I
I
II
II
II
II
II
II
I
II
II
II
II
II
II
I
I
I
COMPLETION
56. ANS: self-pollination
PTS: 1
DIF: I
57. ANS: cross-pollination
OBJ: 9-1.1
PTS: 1
58. ANS: F2
DIF: I
OBJ: 9-1.1
PTS: 1
DIF: I
59. ANS: F1 generation
OBJ: 9-1.1
PTS: 1
60. ANS: Heredity
DIF: I
OBJ: 9-1.1
PTS: 1
61. ANS: dominant
DIF: I
OBJ: 9-1.1
PTS: 1
62. ANS: recessive
DIF: I
OBJ: 9-1.2
PTS: 1
DIF: I
63. ANS: recessive trait
OBJ: 9-1.2
PTS: 1
DIF: II
64. ANS: law of segregation
OBJ: 9-1.2
PTS: 1
65. ANS: alleles
OBJ: 9-1.3
DIF: I
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
OBJ:
9-2.1
9-2.1
9-2.1
9-2.1
9-2.2
9-2.1
9-2.1
9-2.1
9-2.2
9-2.2
9-2.2
9-2.2
9-2.2
9-2.2
9-2.2
9-2.2
9-2.4
9-2.4
PTS: 1
66. ANS: meiosis
DIF: I
OBJ: 9-1.3
PTS: 1
67. ANS: heredity
DIF: I
OBJ: 9-1.3
PTS: 1
68. ANS: alleles
DIF: I
OBJ: 9-1.3
PTS: 1
69. ANS: gene
DIF: I
OBJ: 9-1.4
PTS: 1
70. ANS: genotype
DIF: I
OBJ: 9-1.5
PTS: 1
71. ANS: phenotype
DIF: I
OBJ: 9-2.1
PTS: 1
DIF: I
72. ANS: round, yellow seeds
OBJ: 9-2.1
PTS: 1
73. ANS: 1:2:1
DIF: I
OBJ: 9-2.1
PTS: 1
74. ANS: “3”
DIF: II
OBJ: 9-2.2
PTS: 1
75. ANS: short
DIF: II
OBJ: 9-2.2
PTS: 1
76. ANS: Tt
DIF: II
OBJ: 9-2.2
PTS: 1
DIF: II
77. ANS: codominance
OBJ: 9-2.2
PTS: 1
DIF: I
78. ANS: multiple alleles
OBJ: 9-2.2
PTS: 1
DIF: I
79. ANS: incomplete dominance
OBJ: 9-2.2
PTS: 1
80. ANS: dihybrid
DIF: I
OBJ: 9-2.2
DIF: I
OBJ: 9-2.4
PTS: 1