2014.10.16論文評述心得報告 環醫所博士班研究生 黃建程 Detection
... allele inherited from the father (e.g. IGF-2). However, in plants parental
genomic imprinting can refer to gene expression both solely or primarily
from either parent's allele. Forms of genomic imprinting have been
demonstrated in fungi, plants and animals.
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic proces ...
מצגת של PowerPoint
... Garfield AS…Ward A. Nature. 469(7331):534-8 (2011)
Imprinted genes, defined by their preferential expression of a single parental
allele, represent a subset of the mammalian genome and often have key roles in
embryonic development, but also postnatal functions including energy homeostasis
and behavi ...
... The study of the mechanisms by
which genes bring about their
... • DNA methylation, the addition of methyl groups to
certain bases in DNA, is associated with reduced
transcription in some species
• DNA methylation can cause long-term inactivation
of genes in cellular differentiation
• In genomic imprinting, methylation regulates
expression of either the maternal ...
No Slide Title
... Example 1: The insulin-like growth
factor 2 (Igf2) and H19 genes.
The sole purpose of H19 appears to be
to 'imprint' Igf2.
Sexual conflict and imprinting
... The best strategy for mating and rearing offspring is not the same for males and
females. As a result, sexual conflicts can evolve, producing traits and behaviors
that can seem downright destructive—such as the habit some birds have of
abandoning their young (page 285). David Haig and other research ...
epigenomics - IES Valldemossa
... Imprinting does not occur on every chromosome; only nine
chromosomes are known to have regions of genes that are
Imprinting occurs by a pattern of methylation, meaning the
copy of the gene to be inactivated is coated with methyl
Imprinting takes place before fertilization, in the ...
Of wolves and men: the role of paternal child care in the
... this theory, genes expressed from the
paternal allele favour the acquisition of
maternal resources and hence the growth
of the foetus, whereas genes expressed
from the maternal allele restrict foetal
growth to preserve the mother’s resources
for future pregnancies. Good examples for
these peculiar e ...
... Operons are generally not found in Eukaryotes.
Gene regulation is controlled individually and have
regulatory sequences that are much more complex
that those of the lac operon.
TATA box is found in Eukaryotic genes. It helps
position RNA polymerase to begin transcription of
the DNA. The promoter is ...
Can environmental factors acting on an organism cause inherited
... Angelman syndrome patients are hyperactive, have unusual seizures and repetitive
symmetrical muscle movements and show mental deficiencies. Both syndromes involve a
small deletion in human chromosome 15 (locus 3), if this deletion is inherited from the
maternal parent, it leads to Angelman syndrome, ...
With the completion of the human genome sequence, we now have
... Since the completion of the human genome sequence, we now have access to more information than ever
before about our genetic make-up. The human genome contains 3 billion base pairs of DNA, encoding an
estimated 25,000 genes, which are the basic units of heredity. This course addresses questions such ...
Bill Nye - Genetics (worksheet)
... 5) What did irradiating (exposing them to x-rays) do to the genes of the bread mold?
6) The Beadle and Tatum breakthrough was the “one gene, one _______________” hypothesis.
Crossing Over and Linkage
... linked down the generations, greatly reducing the number of gene permutations possible
at each generation. Crossing over allows a child to inherit, for example, his grandmother’s
green eyes without also inheriting her defective sodium channel gene (page 331), although
both genes are on chromosome 19 ...
sex-linked traits: traits controlled by genes located on thr sex
... SEX-LINKED TRAITS: TRAITS CONTROLLED BY
GENES LOCATED ON THR SEX CHROMOSOMES.
X = FEMALE SEX CHROMOSOME
Y = MALE SEX CHROMOSOME (SMALLER THAN
X AND DOES NOT CONTAIN AS MANY GENES)
Objectives: 1) Define through
example sex-linked traits and
polygenic inheritance. 2)
Identify other factors that might
Chapter 21 The human genome appears to have only about as
... 1. The human genome appears to have only about as many genes as the simple nematode worm,
C. elegans. Which of the following best explains how the more complex humans can have
relatively few genes?
a. Human genes have unusually long introns involved in the regulation of gene expression.
b. More than ...
... Males and females can differ in sex-linked traits.
• Genes on sex chromosomes are called sex-linked genes.
– Y chromosome genes in mammals are responsible for
male characteristics. About 78 genes (code for about 25
... -Either maternal allele OR paternal allele is expressed
• Paternal genes are thought to extract maternal resources for the
benefit of the offspring
– Growth promoters
• Maternal genes are thought to allocate resources ‘equitably’
between offspring and mother.
– Growth suppressors
• Thus, imprinted g ...
NOVA – Cracking the Code of Life
... 5. It was long thought that humans had around 100,000 genes. The initial survey of the human genome
indicated that there were only about __________ genes in humans. What interesting fact about human
genes allows humans to be so much more complex than something like a fruit fly?
Genomic imprinting is the epigenetic phenomenon by which certain genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. If the allele inherited from the father is imprinted, it is thereby silenced, and only the allele from the mother is expressed. If the allele from the mother is imprinted, then only the allele from the father is expressed. Forms of genomic imprinting have been demonstrated in fungi, plants and animals. Genomic imprinting is a fairly rare phenomenon in mammals; most genes are not imprinted.In insects, imprinting affects entire chromosomes. In some insects the entire paternal genome is silenced in male offspring, and thus is involved in sex determination. The imprinting produces effects similar to the mechanisms in other insects that eliminate paternally inherited chromosomes in male offspring, including arrhenotoky.Genomic imprinting is an inheritance process independent of the classical Mendelian inheritance. It is an epigenetic process that involves DNA methylation and histone methylation without altering the genetic sequence. These epigenetic marks are established (""imprinted"") in the germline (sperm or egg cells) of the parents and are maintained through mitotic cell divisions in the somatic cells of an organism.Appropriate imprinting of certain genes is important for normal development. Human diseases involving genomic imprinting include Angelman syndrome and Prader–Willi syndrome.