Download Exam 3 - Major Concepts

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Chapter 13-15 – DNA Structure and Function
Structure of DNA
Nucleotide Pairing
DNA replication
mRNA Synthesis (Transcription)
Protein Synthesis (Translation
tRNA (anti-codons)
Replication Errors
Point mutation
o Silent
o Mis-sense
o Non-sense
o Frame Shift
DNA splicing (removal of Non-coding DNA)
Gene Regulation
Stem cells, and cell differentiation
Epigenetic effects
Genetic modification
o Selective Breeding
o Transgenics
o Uses of Genetic Recombination
Darwin theory of evolution
o Variation
o Natural Selection
o Reproductive advantage
o Change over time.
 Homology
 Homoplasy
 Genomic variation
Evolutionary Concepts
 Evolutionary Process – make sure you understand the purpose of each of the three
main steps:
o Variation
o Natural Selection
o Heritability
Positive Mutations
Negative Mutations
Mechanisms of evolution – be able to explain in 1-2 sentences how each of these
contribute to evolution (change)
o Mutation
o Gene Flow (gene transfer)
o Genetic Drift (changes in gene frequency)
o Sexual selection
Natural Selection
Artificial Selection (domestication)
Sexual Selection
Types of Selection
o Stabilizing
o Directional
o Disruptive
Biological Species complex
o What makes a species?
Allopatric speciation
Sympatric speciation
Reproductive isolation
o Geographic
o Ecological (niche specialization)
o Temporal
o Behavioral
o Physical incompatibility
o Gametic isolation
o Hybrid inviability
What are fossils
o Geological theory of succession (Lyell)
o Theory of extinction (Cuvier)
Major Events in life on earth
o Cambrian explosion
o Triassic (Dinosaurs & Mammals)
o Tertiary (Primates)
o Quaternary (Humans)