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VIDEO GUIDE FOR BOZEMAN BIOLOGY – GENOTPES AND PHENOTYPES 1. What is genotype? 2. What is phenotype? 3. What are the two main ways to get errors in DNA? 4. What is the difference between the sense and nonsense strand? 5. Changes in “letters” of DNA lead to changes in ____________ __________ of proteins 6. Which enzyme copies DNA? 7. List some causes of mutations. 8. What is a neutral mutation? 9. Why can we use neutral mutations to create a “biological clock”? 10. Why is the CCR5-delta32 mutation beneficial? 11. What protection did CCR5-delta32 probably provide to our ancestors? 12. Why is PKU (phenylketonuria) a harmful mutation? 13. Going from a diploid cell to a haploid gamete is _______________ 14. Give an example of how extra chromosomes may benefit an organism 15. Why are mules sterile? 16. How is Down Syndrome a result of mistakes in meiosis? 17. What is the benefit of having the sickle cell allele? 18. How does that affect the frequency of sickle cell allele throughout the world?