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Transcript
TORTORA • FUNKE
• CASE
Microbiology
AN INTRODUCTION
EIGHTH EDITION
B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein
Chapter 9, part B
Biotechnology and Recombinant
DNA
Genetic Engineering: cloning a
gene
Figure 9.11.1
Genetic Engineering
Figure 9.11.2
Making a Gene Product
Figure 9.12.1
Making a Gene Product
Figure 9.12.2
E. coli
• Used because it is easily grown and
its genomics are known
• Need to eliminate endotoxin from
products
• Cells must be lysed to get product
Making a Gene Product
Figure 9.13
Therapeutic Applications
• Subunit vaccines
– Recombivac Hepatitis B
• Nonpathogenic viruses carrying genes for
pathogen's antigens as vaccines
• Gene therapy to replace defective or missing
genes
• Human Genome Project
– Nucleotides have been sequenced
– Human Proteome Project may provide
diagnostics and treatments
Random Shotgun Sequencing:
Skip this
Figure 9.14
Scientific Applications
• Understanding
of DNA
• Sequencing
organisms'
genomes
• DNA
fingerprinting
for
identification
Figure 9.16
Southern Blotting
To look for a gene or sequence
Figure 9.15.1
Southern Blotting
Figure 9.15.2
Southern Blotting
Figure 9.15.3
Agricultural Applications
Table 9.2
Genetic Engineering Using
Agrobacterium
Figure 9.18
Safety Issues and Ethics
• Avoid accidental release
– Frankenfish and frankenfood (corn)
• Genetically modified crops must be safe for
consumption and for the environment
– Bt with new protein
• Who will have access to an individual's
genetic information?
– Patents - sell to poor countries for profit