Download Genetic engineering

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Polymorphism (biology) wikipedia , lookup

Minimal genome wikipedia , lookup

Nutriepigenomics wikipedia , lookup

Gene therapy wikipedia , lookup

Molecular cloning wikipedia , lookup

Hybrid (biology) wikipedia , lookup

Gene expression programming wikipedia , lookup

Genetically modified crops wikipedia , lookup

Non-coding DNA wikipedia , lookup

Vectors in gene therapy wikipedia , lookup

Genomic library wikipedia , lookup

Therapeutic gene modulation wikipedia , lookup

Human genetic variation wikipedia , lookup

Genomics wikipedia , lookup

Deoxyribozyme wikipedia , lookup

Public health genomics wikipedia , lookup

Gene wikipedia , lookup

Population genetics wikipedia , lookup

Biology and consumer behaviour wikipedia , lookup

Polyploid wikipedia , lookup

Koinophilia wikipedia , lookup

Genetically modified organism containment and escape wikipedia , lookup

Site-specific recombinase technology wikipedia , lookup

Selective breeding wikipedia , lookup

Helitron (biology) wikipedia , lookup

Genome editing wikipedia , lookup

Genome evolution wikipedia , lookup

Genetically modified food wikipedia , lookup

Artificial gene synthesis wikipedia , lookup

Genome (book) wikipedia , lookup

Designer baby wikipedia , lookup

Genetic engineering wikipedia , lookup

Microevolution wikipedia , lookup

History of genetic engineering wikipedia , lookup

Introduction of applied genetics
Early in human history, people unwittingly began the process of manipulating the
genetic constitutions of organisms by their selection of plants and animals in the new
activity of agriculture .The breeding of domesticated species of plants and animals
involves artificial selection and natural hybridization between related species and the
doubling of whole sets of chromosomes to give polyploids.
In artificial selection, genetic modification is brought about when organisms with
favorable characteristics that are genetically controlled are permitted to breed , and
the progeny they produce are similarly sorted .Those with favorable characteristics are
used as further breeding stock, and so of . Meanwhile, progeny without favored
characteristics are excluded from breeding. The result is a shift in the genotypes of
new individuals away from those of the original pop ulation, and consequently a
change in the gene pool. A sample of the gene pool forms the genomes (gene sets of
individuals) of the next generation. The plants and animals of our farms and gardens
and homes are all generation. The plants and animals of our farms and gardens and
homes are all genetically modified by these processes.
Today a new type of genetic manipulation is in use, known as genetic engineering of
recombinant DNA technology. The extremely long double strands of DNA found in
the nucleus are function alls divided into shorter lengths, the genes. In recombinant
DNA technology, genes from one organism are introduced into the genome of an
unrelated organism. One outcome has been the ‘engineering’ of new varieties of
organism, mostly microorganisms, which are used in the manufacture of useful
chemicals by biotechnological processes, The work also extends our knowledge of the
functioning gene ,another aspect of the pure research we call molecular biology .