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Notes for Miss King’s 8th Grade Science Class
CELLS AND HEREDITY: CHAPTER 5 LESSON 3—How Can Organisms Be Produced
with Desired Traits?
1. Selective breeding, cloning, and genetic engineering are three different methods
for developing organisms with desired traits.
a. Selective breeding—the process of selecting organisms with desired traits
to be parents of the next generation.
i. Ex: corn was developed through selective breeding.
ii. Inbreeding—involves crossing two individuals that have similar
desirable characteristics.
1. Ex: types of dogs.
iii. Hybridization—the cross between two genetically different
1. Ex: roses.
b. Clone—an organism that has exactly the same genes as the organisms
from which it was produced.
i. Ex: Dolly the sheep.
c. Genetic engineering—genes from one organism are transferred into the
DNA of another organism.
i. Ex: bacteria is genetically engineered in order to help produce a
human protein called insulin.
2. Gene therapy—inserting copies of a gene directly into a person’s cells.