Download Ch7-2CellStructure - Saint Joseph High School

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Cell Structure
Nucleus, Organelles, and
• The nucleus is an internal compartment
that houses the cell’s DNA
• Organelles are other internal structures
that carry out specific functions in the
• Cytoplasm is everything inside the
cell membrane but outside the
Flagella and Cilia
•Cilia are short, hair-like
structures that protrude from
cell surfaces
•Flagella and cilia can propel cells
or they can move substances
across a cell’s surface
•Cilia in lungs sweep mucus and
debris away and in your ears they
conduct sound vibrations
• The cytoskeleton is a web of protein fibers
• It holds the cell together and keeps cell
membranes from collapsing
• Anchored to cell membrane
• It links one region to another
• Anchors nucleus and organelles to fixed
• 3 different kinds—microfilaments,
microtubules, and intermediate filaments
• Long and slender, made of actin
• Network beneath cell’s surface that is
anchored to the membrane proteins
• Determines the shape of the cell
• Hollow tubes of tubulin
• Within the cytoskeleton, microtubules
act as the highway for transportation of
information from the nucleus out
• RNA/protein complexes are transported
along the “tracks” of microtubules by
motor proteins
Cell Membrane
• Cell membranes are made up of
phospholipids, which are a phosphate
group and two fatty acids
• Phospholipids are made up of a polar
“head” and two nonpolar “tails”
• Phospholipids form a phospholipid
Cell Membrane
• Cell membranes have selective permeability
• The lipid bilayer allows lipids and substances
that dissolve in lipids to pass through
• Membrane proteins are also part of the
membrane—some are for transport
Cell Membrane
• There are several types of membrane
proteins, including:
– Marker proteins
– Transport proteins
– Enzymes
– Receptor proteins
• Proteins move, because phospholipids
are constantly in motion
• Houses most of the DNA, which controls
the cell’s functions
• Surrounded by a double membrane,
called the nuclear envelope or nuclear
• The nuclear envelope is made of two
lipid bilayers
• Why do you think that there are 2?
• Nuclear pores are small channels through
the nuclear envelope
• What are the pores for?
• The nucleolus is an area of the nucleus
where ribosomes are partially assembled
• Eukaryotic DNA is tightly wound around
proteins, and appears as a dark mass under
magnification most of the time
• Made up of dozens of proteins and RNA
• Cells make proteins on ribosomes
• Some are suspended in the cytosol. These
are “free” ribosomes. “Free” ribosomes
make proteins that remain in the cell.
• Proteins that leave the cell are made on
ribosomes on the surface of the
endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
• An extensive system of internal
membranes that move proteins and
other substances through the cell
• The membrane of ER is a lipid bilayer
with embedded
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
• The Rough ER has ribosomes attached
–It helps transport proteins made on the
attached ribosomes
–The proteins enter the ER and a small,
membrane-bound sac, or vesicle, pinches
–Proteins made on ribosomes on
the rough ER stay separate from
proteins made on free ribosomes
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
• The Smooth
Endoplasmic Reticulum
lacks ribosomes, so it
appears smooth under
an electron microscope
• The smooth ER makes
lipids and breaks down
toxic substances
Golgi Apparatus
• A flattened, membranebound sac that serves as
the packaging and
distribution center of
the cell
• Enzymes in the Golgi
Apparatus modify
proteins from the ER
• Lysosomes are small, spherical organelles
that contain the cell’s digestive enzymes
• Organelle that uses
organic compounds to
make ATP, the primary
energy source of cells
• Cells with high energy
requirements, like
muscle cells, may contain
hundreds or thousands
or mitochondria
• The mitochondria has two membranes
–The outer membrane is smooth
–The inner membrane is greatly folded, so
that it has a lot of surface area
–The two membranes
form two compartments
• The mitochondria also
contain DNA and
ribosomes, because they
make some of their own
• Most mitochondrial
proteins are made in the
Organelles Only Found in Plants
• Plants have 3
unique organelles
–Cell wall
–Central vacuole
Cell Wall
• Plants’ cell membranes are surrounded by
cell walls
• Plant cell walls are made of proteins and
carbohydrates, including cellulose
• Helps support and protect the cells
• Connects cells to one another
• Chloroplasts are organelles that use light to
make carbohydrates from CO2 and H2O
• Found in algae as well as plants
• Surrounded by 2 membranes
• Contain their own DNA
Central Vacuole
The central vacuole stores water
It may contain ions, nutrients, and wastes
It makes the cell rigid, when it is full
Enables plants to stand upright
Let’s Review
• We use microscopes to look at cells that
are too small to see with the naked eye
• The Cell Theory
• What is a cell? What do all cells share?
• Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
• Nucleus, Organelles, and Cytoplasm, oh
• What separates plants from other
The Cell
Function as
Function as
ER & Golgi
Function as
Function as
Function as