... chain – makes ATP or pumps H+ into the
center of the thylakoid disc at each step
• P I – re-energized e- is passed down a
second e- transport chain
– @ the end, the e- is transferred to NADP
– Forms NADPH which is used in the lightindependent reactions
– NADP is a carrier – it just transports the e- ...
... Biological cells and some internal structures are surrounded by membranes comprised of
lipid bilayers and membrane proteins. Certain specialized biomembranes are stacked into
multi-layers, allowing a high content of protein-lipid bilayers in a small volume. Chloroplasts
(the photosynthetic organelle ...
Chloroplasts: (Chloro= green) Chlorophyll-containing
plastids which are the sites of photosynthesis
•Found in eukaryotic algae, leaves and other green plant organs
•Are lens-shaped and measure about 2µm by 5µm
•Are dynamic structures that change shape, move and divide.
... chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis
of sugar (glucose) from carbon dioxide
1i – In the mitochondria and chloroplasts energy
from electrons is stored for ATP production
... e. Both the c and d are correct.
2. Proteins which act as catalysts of
chemical reactions [in cells] are called:
c. reaction cofactors.
3. A final product of a metabolic pathway
inhibits an early enzyme in the pathway.
This is likely to be an exa ...
... essential for all photosynthetic plant cells.
As germinating seedlings are exposed to
light, etioplasts in young mesophyll cells
become chloroplasts in the developing
seedling. The chloroplast thylakoids develop from a paracrystalline tubular structure that is transformed when illuminated
into a ser ...
... d. Used ATP is discarded by the cell as waste.
_____ 2. Look at Figure 8–1. All of the following are
parts of an ADP molecule EXCEPT
a. structure A.
b. structure B.
c. structure C.
d. structure D.
_____ 3. What happens during photosynthesis?
a. Heterotrophs consume ATP.
b. Heterotrophs produce ATP.
... o Reactions of photosynthesis use reactions that function between 0 and 35 degrees Celsius
o Higher light intensity= higher rate of photosynthesis
There is however, a maximum rate of photosynthesis
o Shortage of water can slow photosynthesis and damage plant tissues
Some plants in desert areas h ...
... electron carriers. These electron carriers pass electrons from
NADH and FADH to one another down a red-ox stairway. The net
result of this series of step-wise electron exchanges is to pump H+
(protons) out of the matrix into the outer compartment between the
outer and inner membrane of the mitochond ...
... The crucial components of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants, algae and cyanobacteria are
thylakoid membrane embedded pigment-protein complexes, so called photosystems. They
capture light energy and mediate its conversion into the energy of chemical bonds. The key
component of this intricate mac ...
... • Powers ATP synthesis
• Takes place across the thylakoid
• Uses ETC and ATP synthase
• H+ move down their concentration
gradient through channels of ATP
synthase forming ATP from ADP
A thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. They are the site of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. Thylakoids consist of a thylakoid membrane surrounding a thylakoid lumen. Chloroplast thylakoids frequently form stacks of disks referred to as grana (singular: granum). Grana are connected by intergranal or stroma thylakoids, which join granum stacks together as a single functional compartment.