Download Introduction to Animal Cells

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Cell encapsulation wikipedia, lookup

Extracellular matrix wikipedia, lookup

Cellular differentiation wikipedia, lookup

Cell cycle wikipedia, lookup

Cell growth wikipedia, lookup

Cell culture wikipedia, lookup

Cytosol wikipedia, lookup

Signal transduction wikipedia, lookup

Organ-on-a-chip wikipedia, lookup

Cell membrane wikipedia, lookup

Mitosis wikipedia, lookup

Amitosis wikipedia, lookup

Cytokinesis wikipedia, lookup

Cell nucleus wikipedia, lookup

Endomembrane system wikipedia, lookup

List of types of proteins wikipedia, lookup

Introduction to Animal Cells
Characteristics of Animal
• They are eukaryotic cells, that means they
contain a membrane bound nucleus
• They lack a cell wall that plant cells have
• Generally they are larger and more
complex than prokaryotic cells
• Contains membrane bound structures
called organelles
Plasma Membrane
• Not an organelle
• Selectively permeable
• Defines boundaries of cell and ensures contents
are retained
• Made of proteins and lipids
– Phospholipid bilayer
• Considered the “Control Center” of the cell
• Controls cell activity
• Contains nearly all of the cell’s DNA
• Small, dense region within the nucleus
• The beginning site of protein assembly
Nuclear Envelope
Double membrane that surrounds nucleus
Protects and isolates cell DNA
Selectively permeable
Contains thousands of nuclear pores that
allow material to move into and out of the cell
• Located near the nucleus
• Help to organize cell division in animal
• Most numerous and smallest organelle
• Composed of RNA and proteins
• Found throughout cytoplasm and attached to
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Site of protein synthesis
• Made of 2 subunits
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
• Site where lipid components of cell
membrane and proteins are assembled
• Site of preparation of material to be
exported from the cell
• Two types
– Rough ER
– Smooth ER
Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Rough ER
• Smooth ER
– Has ribosomes
attached to surface
– Portion of ER
involved in protein
– Lacks ribosomes
– Contains enzymes
that are specialized
detoxify drugs and
membrane lipids
Golgi Apparatus
• Site of protein processing, sorting,
packing, and transport from ER to be
secreted from the cell
• One of the largest organelles
• Breaks down sugar molecules stored in
food and converts them to chemical
energy for use by the cell (ATP)
• Contain their own DNA, RNA, and
ribosomes and are able to reproduce
• The “powerhouse” of the cell
Lysosomes & Peroxisomes
• Similar in both structure and function
• Lysosomes
– Filled with enzymes to breakdown and digest dead
organelles and proteins not being used
• Peroxisomes
– Detoxifies hydrogen peroxide and other harmful
– Plays a part in the oxidative breakdown of fatty
acids in animal cells
• Saclike structure
• Storage area for the cell
• Stores materials like water, salt, proteins
and carbohydrates
• Network of protein filaments that help cell
maintain its shape
• Involved in movement of cells