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Academic Vocabulary #11
Cell Organelles
1. Organelles
One of the small bodies in a cell’s cytoplasm that
is specialized to perform a specific function
(little organs).
2. Cell wall
A rigid structure that
surrounds the cell
membrane and
provides support to
the cell. It is found
only in plant cells.
3. Cell Membrane
A phospholipid bilayer that covers a cells surface
and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell
and the cell’s environment.
4. Cytoplasm
A gel-like substance in which all the parts of the
cell rest. This helps give the cell its form and
hold all the cell’s organelles in place.
5. Nucleus
A membrane-bound organelle that contains the
cell’s DNA and has a role in processes such as
growth, metabolism, and reproduction. This
organelle is found in eukaryotic cells only. It is
the control center of the cell.
Eukaryotic Cell
Prokaryotic Cell
6. Nuclear membrane
Surrounds and protects the nucleus of the cell
and determines what is allowed to pass in and
out of the nucleus.
7. Vacuole
Storage molecule to store food, water, and
waste. Found in plant and animal cells but they
are very large in plant cells.
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
8. Chloroplast
Capture energy from the sun and convert to
chemical energy in a process called
photosynthesis. Found only in plants.
9. Ribosome
Produces protein. Found in both plant and
animal cells
10. Mitochondria
Powerhouses of the cell. Converts chemical
energy stored in food into useable energy.
Found in both plant and animal cells.
11. Lysosome
Filled with enzymes. Break down lipids, carbs.,
and proteins. Also removes ‘junk’ from cell.
Found in animal cells only.
12. Golgi
Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins sent from
the ER. Looks like flattened pancakes. Found in
both plant and animal cells.
13. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
(Rough ER)
Site of protein synthesis; has ribosomes on it.
Found in both animal and plant cells.
14. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
(Smooth ER)
Site of lipid synthesis & the detoxification of
drugs; no ribosomes. Found in both animal and
plant cells.
Animal Cell
Plant Cell