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Quiz 3
Page 1
Nerve Cells and Electrical Signaling
Type the question and your answer, in complete sentences, on a separate sheet of paper.
Turn in your answers to the Lab Instructor.
1) Describe the anatomical organization of the nervous system, including how those nerves are
organized within the nervous system.
2) Describe the structure of a neuron and the important consequences of that arrangement.
3) A number of modified epithelial cells, acting as sensory receptors, innervate a single nerve
cell. Some of these cells release excitatory neurotransmitters, while others release inhibitory
neurotransmitters. How are these responses integrated by the nerve cell to determine whether an
action potential will be generated or not?
4) Every cell within the body has a potential difference across its membrane. Discuss the role of
potassium ions in creating that potential difference across the cell membrane at rest. Include in
your discussion a description of equilibrium potential.
5) Several ions are responsible for resting membrane potential. Describe the forces that
determine resting membrane potential.
6) Graded potentials develop in the cell body of neurons as well as in sensory receptor cells. In
order for sensory information to reach the central nervous system that graded potential must be
converted into an action potential. How are graded potentials created, and how are they different
from action potentials?
7) Describe the voltage gating of ion channels and how this plays a role in an action potential.
8) Once an action potential is generated, there is a delay before another action potential can be
generated. Name and describe the basis for the two refractory periods.
9) Describe how an action potential, originating at the axon hillock, is propagated along the axon.
Include those factors that can alter conduction velocity.
10) Describe the types of ion channels that are found in a cell and how those channels are