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Transcript
Cell Structures
7-2
Cell Structures
•
The cell has many parts
that work together like
a machine in order to
carry out all of it’s life
processes
•
They all have unique
and specialized
functions that the cell
could not do without
Cell Wall
•
In some cells, mainly
plants and bacteria a
cell wall may be found
•
The cell wall is
responsible for
providing rigid support
and protection for the
cell
•
It is located outside of
the cell membrane
Nucleus
•
The nucleus controls
most cell processes
and contains the
hereditary information
of DNA
•
The nucleus has many
parts that work
together to make up the
full nucleus
Nucleus
•
The outer most part of
the nucleus is called
the nuclear envelope
•
The nuclear envelope is
responsible for
movement of RNA in
and out of the cell
Nucleus
•
The nucleolus is a
small dense region
inside the nucleus
•
It has recently been
discovered that the
nucleolus is the plays a
role in ribosome
construction
Nucleus
•
Inside the nucleus is
the genetic material of
a cell
•
This genetic material is
called chromatin
•
During cell replication
it will coil tightly and
condense creating
chromosomes
Cytoskeleton
•
Many cells have a
special structure called
the cytoskeleton
•
The cytoskeleton is the
frame work of a cell
that is made of protein
filaments and helps
maintain shape and cell
movement
Cytoskeleton
•
The cytoskeleton has
two main parts
•
The microtubules and
microfilaments
Cytoskeleton
•
The microtubules are
hollow tubes of protein
that help maintain
shape and serve as a
set of “tracks” for
organelle movement
•
Microfilaments are long
thin fibers that function
in the movement and
support of the cell
Organelles in the cytoplasm
•
The cytoplasm is the
home for many of the
cells organelles
•
This includes the
ribosomes, ER, golgi
apparatus, lysosomes,
vacuoles, chloroplasts,
and mitochondria
Ribosomes
•
Ribosomes are very
small organelles which
are located in the
cytoplasm and on parts
of the ER
•
They are the makers of
proteins and get their
instructions in the form
of a coded message
from the nucleus
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
(ER)
• The ER is the organelle
in which the
components for the cell
membrane are
assembled and some
proteins are altered
•
There are two kinds of
ER
•
Rough ER and Smooth
ER
•
Rough ER has
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
•
Rough ER and Smooth
ER
•
Rough ER has
ribosomes and Smooth
ER does not
Golgi Apparatus
•
Proteins that are made
by the Rough ER are
moved into a stack of
membranes called the
golgi apparatus
•
Enzymes in the golgi
apparatus attach
carbohydrates and
lipids to proteins
Lysosomes
•
Lysosomes are small
organelles that are
filled with enzymes
•
These enzymes break
down lipids,
carbohydrates, and
proteins from food into
particles that can be
used in other parts of
the cell
Vacuoles
•
Cells often store
materials such as
water, salts, proteins
and carbohydrates for
later use
•
They are stored in sacs
called vacuoles
•
In plants the vacuoles
are much larger than
animal cells
Chloroplasts
•
Chloroplasts are mainly
found in plants
•
They are not in animal
cells or fungi
•
Their job is to use the
energy from sunlight to
make energy rich food
molecules known as
chlorophyll
Mitochondria
•
Mitochondria are
organelles that release
energy from stored
food molecules
•
They are often called
the “power house” of
the cell because they
provide energy for
other cell processes