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Cell Structures
Cell Structures
The cell has many parts
that work together like
a machine in order to
carry out all of it’s life
They all have unique
and specialized
functions that the cell
could not do without
Cell Wall
In some cells, mainly
plants and bacteria a
cell wall may be found
The cell wall is
responsible for
providing rigid support
and protection for the
It is located outside of
the cell membrane
The nucleus controls
most cell processes
and contains the
hereditary information
of DNA
The nucleus has many
parts that work
together to make up the
full nucleus
The outer most part of
the nucleus is called
the nuclear envelope
The nuclear envelope is
responsible for
movement of RNA in
and out of the cell
The nucleolus is a
small dense region
inside the nucleus
It has recently been
discovered that the
nucleolus is the plays a
role in ribosome
Inside the nucleus is
the genetic material of
a cell
This genetic material is
called chromatin
During cell replication
it will coil tightly and
condense creating
Many cells have a
special structure called
the cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton is the
frame work of a cell
that is made of protein
filaments and helps
maintain shape and cell
The cytoskeleton has
two main parts
The microtubules and
The microtubules are
hollow tubes of protein
that help maintain
shape and serve as a
set of “tracks” for
organelle movement
Microfilaments are long
thin fibers that function
in the movement and
support of the cell
Organelles in the cytoplasm
The cytoplasm is the
home for many of the
cells organelles
This includes the
ribosomes, ER, golgi
apparatus, lysosomes,
vacuoles, chloroplasts,
and mitochondria
Ribosomes are very
small organelles which
are located in the
cytoplasm and on parts
of the ER
They are the makers of
proteins and get their
instructions in the form
of a coded message
from the nucleus
• The ER is the organelle
in which the
components for the cell
membrane are
assembled and some
proteins are altered
There are two kinds of
Rough ER and Smooth
Rough ER has
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Rough ER and Smooth
Rough ER has
ribosomes and Smooth
ER does not
Golgi Apparatus
Proteins that are made
by the Rough ER are
moved into a stack of
membranes called the
golgi apparatus
Enzymes in the golgi
apparatus attach
carbohydrates and
lipids to proteins
Lysosomes are small
organelles that are
filled with enzymes
These enzymes break
down lipids,
carbohydrates, and
proteins from food into
particles that can be
used in other parts of
the cell
Cells often store
materials such as
water, salts, proteins
and carbohydrates for
later use
They are stored in sacs
called vacuoles
In plants the vacuoles
are much larger than
animal cells
Chloroplasts are mainly
found in plants
They are not in animal
cells or fungi
Their job is to use the
energy from sunlight to
make energy rich food
molecules known as
Mitochondria are
organelles that release
energy from stored
food molecules
They are often called
the “power house” of
the cell because they
provide energy for
other cell processes