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Transcript
Section 6-3
Advances in Genetics
Getting Organisms with Desired Traits
•
There are three methods people
have created to develop organisms
with desired traits
Selective Breeding
• Having parents with desired traits produce
offspring
– Inbreeding
• Crossing two individuals that have identical alleles
– Hybridization
• Breeders cross two genetically different individuals
– Best traits of both parents
Cloning
–Cloning plants
• Cutting
–cutting part of a plant off and inserting it on
another plant
–Cloning animals
• The nucleus of one egg is replaced with the
nucleus of the cell of another animal
–Dolly the sheep was the first “successful” clone
Genetic Engineering
–Genes from one organism are transferred
to the DNA of another organism
• Can be done in bacteria to produce
medication (insulin)
• Some tomatoes have been engineered to
survive cold, pests, etc
– Gene therapy
• splice “healthy” DNA into the DNA of a sick
individual
Other Advances in Genetics
• DNA Fingerprinting
– Taking the DNA from people to compare it to the
DNA found at crime scenes
• Human Genome Project
– The project that includes finding the sequence of
every gene in the human DNA strand