Download Chapter 24 Applied Genetics I. Plant and animal

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Transcript
Chapter 24 Applied Genetics
I.
II.
Plant and animal breeding
A. Selective breeding
1. Crossing of plants or animals with desirable traits
2. Offspring contain those desirable traits
B. Hybridization
1. Crossing of two genetically different related species
2. Produce organism with best traits of both parents (hybrid)
C. Inbreeding
1. Crossing of two organisms with the same or similar sets of genes
2. Leads to purebred organisms
3. Able to pass on desirable traits
4. May cause susceptibility to certain diseases
Genetic engineering
A. Recombinant DNA
1. Joining parts of an organism’s DNA to the DNA of another organism
2. Transferred from complex organism to simple one
3. Causes production of protein
B. Making recombinant DNA
1. Plasmid ring removed from bacterial cell
2. Ring cut open
3. Human DNA strand is attached
4. Reinserted into bacterial cell
5. Human protein is produced outside human body
C. Products of genetic engineering
1. Use of engineering produces large quantities of proteins
2. Proteins used to treat human disorders, test for diseases, make vaccines
3. Medicines
a. Used to make insulin for diabetics
b. Used to make human growth hormone
c. Used to make vaccines which trigger antibody production
d. Used to make protein, interferon, to fight virus that causes AIDS
4. Agriculture
a. Able to insert genes from virus into plant
b. Plant becomes resistant to disease