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Gene Expression
= Protein
An organisms trait’s are
determined by proteins that are
built according to the plans
specified in its DNA.
(not in notes)
Gene Expression Over View
By altering the DNA, you are able to alter
the proteins causing different results.
What are Genes?
 Hold
information specifying how to
build particular proteins.
 Referring back to the gym socks what
part of the sock did the gene
Not in Notes-REVIEW
Genes are the DNA-encoded
information that specifies particular
proteins; each gene is made of a
specific sequence of ____________???
Not in Notes-REVIEW
Transcribe and Translate a Gene
 The
DNA that makes up the human
genome can be subdivided into
information bytes called genes. Each
gene encodes a unique protein that
performs a specialized function in the
 The human genome contains more
than 25,000 genes.
 Cells
use the two-step process of
transcription and translation to read
each gene and produce the string of
amino acids that makes up a protein.
The basic rules for translating a gene
into a protein are laid out in the
Universal Genetic Code.
How do you build
 It
a protein?
goes through two steps.
The first step is to undergo
 In
the nucleolus the cells machinery
copies the gene sequence into
messenger RNA (mRNA), a molecule
that is similar to DNA. Like DNA,
mRNA has four-nucleotide bases-but
in mRNA, the base uracil (U) replaces
thymine (T).
Creating new strands
 1st RNA:
 2nd RNA
 Double strand
 5-C sugar
 Nitrogen bases:
 Single strand
 5-C sugar ribose
 Nitrogen bases:
 Uracil is
complementary to
RNA polymerase
 Binds
to a promoter
 Unwinds and breaks sequence
 Builds up sequence by pairing up each
nucleotide with its complementary
(2 for 1 special)
What is the Role of DNA in this
DNA’s job is to act as a template to
make mRNA.
Step 1: RNA polymerase binds to
gene’s promoter
Step 2: The two DNA strands
unwind and separate
Step 3: Complementary RNA
nucleotides are added
Step 4
Reaches terminator and stops
Step 5
Add INTRONS and EXONS to your
vocab list to page 3
 Introns:
the noncoding sequences
called intervening sequences
 Exons: the nucleotide segments that
code for amino acids.
Transcription copies the DNA code of a
gene and converts it to messenger RNA (m
RNA). The m RNA will be used at the
ribosome to make polypeptides (proteins).
However all of the code contained in the m
RNA molecule is not needed to produce the
polypeptide. The sections of m RNA which
do not code for translation of polypeptide
are called introns.
As the m RNA readies itself to leave the
nucleus, enzymes cut out and remove the
introns. The remaining exons are spliced
back together again by a different enzyme.
This modified m RNA is what comes to the
ribosome to be translated into polypeptides.
messenger RNA (mRNA)
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
transfer RNA (tRNA)
built – in nucleus, leaves
 Holds
the information from DNA and
passes it on to create a protein
 It’s an RNA copy of a gene used as a
blueprint for a protein.
 When a cell needs a particular protein,
a specific mRNA is made.
 Associates
with protein to form the
tRNA – 2nd built, built in the
ribosome, code for amino acids
 Acts
as an interpreter molecule,
translating mRNA sequences into
amino acid sequences
Genetic Code
 After
transcription the genetic
material message is ready to be
translated from the language of RNA
to the language of proteins.
 The instructions for building a protein
are written as a series of 3 nucleotide
sequences called codons.
 The
protein-making machinery, called the
ribosome, reads the mRNA sequence and
translates it into the amino acid sequence
of the protein. The ribosome starts at the
sequence AUG, then reads 3 nucleotides at
a time. Each 3-nucleotide codon specifies
a particular amino acid. The “stop”
codons (UAA, UAG, and UGA) tell the
ribosome that the protein is complete.
DNA duplicates itself in replication.
DNA produces RNA in transcription.
RNA produces proteins in translation.
Drawing TIME!! 
Pull out a sheet of paper
Transcribe a DNA
sequence into a protein
A, RNA, and Proteins
Extra Slides
Transcription is the process of creating RNA from DNA.
Transcription occurs in the cell's nucleus.
RNA polymerase is the protein molecule that reads the
DNA and creates the RNA intermediary.
Transcription requires: DNA, RNA polymerase,
ribonucleotides, and some ATP for energy.
Uracil (U) is substituted for thymine (T) in RNA.
Transcription initiation is the main point of regulation
of gene expression.