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Transcript
GATEWAY
Biology Content Review
Characteristics of Living Things






Reproduce
Grow
Develop
Need food/require energy
Made of cells
Respond to their
environment
 Adapt to their environment
Cells and Heredity
Cell Theory
 All living things are made
of cells.
 The cell is the basic unit of
structure and function.
 All cells come from preexisting cells.
Organelles and Cell Parts

Cell Membrane (Plasma membrane)
– Surrounds cell
– Selective barrier
– Controls what substances enter and exit the
cell
Organelles and Cell Parts

Cytoplasm
– Jelly-like material that fills the cell
– Molecular “soup” holds all organelles
Organelles and Cell Parts

Ribosomes:
– Site of protein synthesis (where proteins are
made)
Organelles and Cell Parts

Golgi Apparatus
– Prepares proteins
that will leave the
animal cell or be
placed in the plasma
membrane
– “Post Office” of the
cell
Organelles and Cell Parts

Mitochondria
– Powerhouse of the cell
– Site of cellular respiration which produces
ATP from sugars (glucose)
Organelles and Cell Parts

Lysosome
– Digest macromolecules
– Single celled organisms—eating, digest food
– Digest/recycle old organelles;
“stomach of the cell”
– Immune system
Organelles and Cell Parts

Centrosome
– Produces microtubules during cell division.
Microtubules control the movement of
chromosomes.
Organelles and Cell Parts

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
– Transport of materials such as proteins
– Ribosomes attached
– Production of proteins occurs on
ribosomes
Organelles and Cell Parts

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
– Transport of materials such as proteins
– No ribosomes attached
– Production of lipids
Organelles and Cell Parts

Nucleus
– Stores/protects DNA
– “Brain” of the cell
Organelles and Cell Parts

Nuclear Envelope (Membrane)
– Membrane that surrounds the nucleus
Organelles and Cell Parts

Nucleolus
– Found in the nucleus
– Produces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) which
forms ribosomes
Organelles and Cell Parts

DNA
– Deoxyribonucleic Acid
– Contains genes/hereditary information
– Determines structure of proteins
Organelles and Cell Parts

Chloroplast
– Site of photosynthesis, which stores the
sun’s energy in sugars (glucose)
– Found in plants
Organelles and Cell Parts

Vacuole
– Storage
– Waste, nutrients, water, ions
Organelles and Cell Parts

Cell Wall
– Supports and protects plant cells, bacteria,
fungi, some protists
– Allows cell to exist in hypotonic
environment
Organelles and Cell Parts

Cilia and Flagella
– Movement (locomotion)
Organelles and Cell Parts

Microfilaments and Microtubules
– Structural components, “skeleton” of the cell
Cellular Classification
Unicellular Organisms
–
–
Single celled
Bacteria, archaea,
some protists
(euglena,
paramecium,
amoeba)
Multicellular Organisms
– More than one cell
– Plants, animals, fungi,
some protists
Cellular Classification
Eukaryote
–
–
–
–
–
Nucleus present
Linear DNA
Single or multi-celled
Membrane bound
organelles
Plants, Animals, Fungi,
Protists
Prokaryote
– No nucleus
– Circular DNA
– No membrane
bound organelles
– Single celled
– “Primitive”
– Bacteria, Archaea
Cellular Classification
Plant
–
–
–
–
Animal
Eukaryotic
Cell wall (cellulose)
Vacuole, chloroplast
No lysosome, no
centrioles
– Eukaryotic
– Lysosomes,
centrioles
– No cell wall, no
vacuole, no
chloroplast
Cells
Eukaryote
Fungi
Plant
Animal
Prokaryote
Protists
Bacteria
Archaea
Practice
 Which of the kingdoms contain only multicellular
organisms?
– Plant, Animal
 Which of the kingdoms contain only single-celled
organisms?
– Bacteria, Archaea
 Which of the kingdoms contain both single-celled
and multicellular organisms?
– Fungi, Protist
Archaea 
Practice: Decide whether each of the following is
unicellular or multicellular, prokaryotic or eukaryotic;
and state the kingdom to which belongs.
 Human
– M/E/Animal
 Cat
– M/E/Animal
 Bacteria
– U/P/Bacteria
 Oak Tree
– M/E/Plant
 Goldfish
– M/E/Animal
Practice: Decide whether each of the following is
unicellular or multicellular, prokaryotic or eukaryotic;
and state the kingdom to which belongs.
 Euglena
– U/E/Protist
 Mushroom
– M/E/Fungi
 Fly
– M/E/Animal
 Snake
– M/E/Animal
 Paramecium
– U/E/Protist
Practice: Decide whether each of the following is unicellular
or multicellular, prokaryotic or eukaryotic; and state the
kingdom to which belongs.
 Daffodil
– M/E/Plant
 Cyanobacteria
– U/E/Protist
 Virus
– None
 Kelp
– M/E/Protist
ARE VIRUSES ALIVE?
 Not considered alive
by many biologists:
 Not cells
 Not able to reproduce
independently
(use host cell)
 Do infect living cells
 Can make copies of
themselves
 Made of core of
DNA or RNA
surrounded by
protein coat
 HIV Virus: