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Emotion: More Than a Feeling A feeling state involving a pattern of facial and bodily changes, cognitive appraisals, and beliefs. Physiological Changes (in body and facial muscles) Emotion Cultural Influences (shape experience and expression of emotion) Cognitive Processes (interpreting the emotional situation) Theories of Emotion Common Sense An emotion-provoking stimulus produces the feeling of an emotion, and then this feeling produces physiological changes and behavior. Fear Theories of Emotion James-Lange Theory An emotion-provoking stimulus directly produces physiological changes and behavior, and then these events produce the feeling of an emotion. Fear Theories of Emotion Cannon-Bard Theory An emotion-provoking stimulus activates a brain center called the “thalamus”, which simultaneously sends messages to the cortex, producing the feeling of an emotion, to the viscera, producing arousal, and to the skeletal muscles, producing behavior. Fear Theories of Emotion Schacter-Singer 2-Factor Theory We have the feeling of an emotion when two factors are present: we are physiologically aroused, and we interpret that arousal in terms of a specific emotion based on the situation we are in. “Scary dog” Fear Theories of Emotion Facial Feedback Hypothesis Facial muscles send messages to the brain that both identify the emotion we are feeling and intensify it. Lazarus’ Cognitive Theory Based on a “cognitive appraisal”, we decide if the situation is positive, negative, or neutral. A positive or negative appraisal triggers both physiological arousal and the feeling of an emotion.