Physiology and neuroanatomy of sleep
... • Basal gastric acid secretion displays a circadian
rhythmicity, with a peak secretion between 10:00 pm and
2:00 am (as a result of increased parasympathetic activity)
and a nadir in the morning between 5:00 and 11:00 am.
• Swallowing 25/h during the day but 5/h during sleep
• Gastric emptying decre ...
basic mechanisms of sleep
... The model of reciprocal interaction (5) provided a theoretic
framework for experimental interventions at the cellular and
molecular level that has vindicated the notion that waking
and REM sleep are at opposite ends of an aminergically
dominant to cholinergically dominant neuromodulatory
Reverse pharmacology of orexin
... these cells during wakefulness. Orexin neurons might
activate another type of cholinergic neurons in the PPT
and LDT, which are active in wakefulness as well as the
REM-sleep period. Recent work also shows that orexin
inhibits cholinergic neurons in the PPT via activation of
GABAergic local interneu ...
THE REGULATION OF SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS BY THE
... upregulated under fasting conditions10), and the forkhead box transcription factor Foxa2, a downstream target of insulin signaling, is reported to be involved in this transcriptional regulation14).
These findings suggest that the activities of orexin neurons are regulated by metabolic balance.
Sleep Neurobiology from a Clinical Perspective
... of autoinhibitory D2 receptors that reduce DA signaling.77,78
However, it is unclear which DA neurons actually promote
arousal. DA-producing neurons are most abundant in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, yet cells in these regions fire in relation to movement or reward but, in general ...
Introduction - Bowling Green State University
... potential learning mediating functions of DA. While motivational theories are largely interested in the
proactive actions of dopaminergic transmission on future behaviors, the learning theories tend to consider
the retroactive effects on strengthening the associations of past events. Anyway, more re ...
... Previous work on unconventional computing and music has focused on using unconventional
computation methods as engines for new modes of musical expression. For example using in
vitro neural networks  or slime molds  to drive a sound synthesizer. The research has
not focused on studying the com ...
Caffeine promotes glutamate and histamine release in the posterior
... waking stimulant. It produces an increase in waking and
locomotor activity in rats (38). Caffeine has been demonstrated
to reverse psychomotor impairments induced by alcohol, benzodiazepines, and antihistamines (10, 24, 25, 30). Systemically
administered caffeine produces c-Fos activation in wake-pr ...
Neuronal activity (c-Fos) delineating interactions of the cerebral
... The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG) form a neural circuit that is disrupted in
disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the BG
followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine
if cortical activity is necessar ...
Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms
... A series of findings over the past decade has begun to identify the brain circuitry and neurotransmitters
that regulate our daily cycles of sleep and wakefulness. The latter depends on a network of cell groups that
activate the thalamus and the cerebral cortex. A key switch in the hypothalamus shuts ...
... inputs; the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory synaptic contacts is
⬃10:1, which is unprecedented in the CNS (71). This pattern
of synaptic organization, which results in noise assuming the
characteristics of signal, allows hypocretinergic neurons to be
easily activated, leading to rapid arousal (71) ...
Physiological Plasticity of Single Neurons in Auditory Cortex of the
... with the discharges of single cells in primary auditory cortex (AI) during the acquisition of a behavioral conditioned response. A companion report is concerned
with the effects of classical conditioning on
the secondary auditory cortical field (All)
At the level of auditory cortex, the situ- which ...
What Keeps Us Awake: the Neuropharmacology of Stimulants and
... AGAINST EXCESSIVE DAYTIME SLEEPINESS IS A CHALLENGE FOR BOTH SLEEP MEDICINE AND BASIC SCIENCE. Indeed, sleep disorders are increasingly prevalent, and
their association with significant morbidity has become a public
health concern.1 Numerous disorders and diseases lead to excessive somnolence, but 8 ...
Sleep and Biological Rhythms
... Siamese twins share the same circulatory system, but sleep
Bottle-nose dolphins: the two hemispheres sleep
Modulation of Cortical Activation and Behavioral Arousal by
... FIGURE 1. Cholinergic, orexinergic, and other neurons involved in sleep–wake state control. Sagittal schematic view
of the rat brain depicting neurons with their chemical neurotransmitters and pathways by which they influence cortical
activity or behavior across the sleep–wake cycle. Wake (W) is cha ...
[Frontiers in Bioscience 8, s438-451, May 1, 2003] 438 AROUSAL
... NA by inhibition of its synthesis leads to a mild hypersomnia (40). But lesions of the noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons do
not have long lasting effects upon cortical activation or waking (36). These neurons may accordingly correspond to a central
sympathetic system that stimulates and enhances ...
... • For example, when we observe something very interesting (or frightening, or simply
surprising), we become more alert and aware of our surroundings.
• Circuits of neurons that secrete at least five different neurotransmitters play a role in
some aspect of an animal’s level of alertness and wakefuln ...
Anxiolytic action on the behavioural inhibition system implies
... The 1982 theory attempted to encompass all the
information available at that time on the neural and
behavioural actions of the anxiolytic drugs, the
nature of theta activity and the neural and behavioural functions of the SHS. The explosion of data
since its publication prompted us to produce a
Running head: EMOTIONAL AROUSAL IN MORAL DECISION 1
... dissolve (due to brain damage); in these cases principled reasoning aimed at maximizing benefits
and minimizing costs may dominate (Greene, 2007; for a different view, see also Moll & de
Oliveira-Souza, 2007). Moreover, other studies (Damasio, 2005) showed that in addition to their
inability to make ...
Emotion - NCRM EPrints Repository
... Language and emotion terms
Ambiguities in physiology
Context and referents
Emotion concept vs. emotion feeling
Emotion experience vs. emotion
Brain Electrical Activity During Waking and Sleep States
... Physiology. Coeruleocortical neurons in rats and monkeys show long-duration action
potential and slow conduction velocities. LC neurons tend to fire synchronously, often in
bursts in response to peripheral sensory stimuli; this is usually followed by a quiescent
period, which is thought to represen ...
Dopaminergic Transmission and Wake
... Several groups of dopamine neurons are located in the hypothalamus (A11–A15)
but little is known about them with regards to control of the sleep-wake cycle. One
study suggested increased activity of the A11 cell group during REM sleep
deprivation suggesting they are wake-active (Leger et al. 2010). ...
Brain Electrical Activity During Waking and Sleep States
... ordering to the coeruleocortical projection, but the distributions of cells projecting to
different cortical sites largely overlap. Recent study by Waterhouse and colleagues using
two retrograde tracers suggest that LC neurons collateralize more to functionally related
areas (e.g. barrel cortex and ...
Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake or reactive to stimuli. It involves the activation of the reticular activating system in the brain stem, the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system, leading to increased heart rate and blood pressure and a condition of sensory alertness, mobility and readiness to respond.There are many different neural systems involved in what is collectively known as the arousal system. Five major systems originating in the brainstem, with connections extending throughout the cortex, are based on the brain's neurotransmitters, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, histamine, and serotonin. When these systems are stimulated, they produce cortical activity and alertness. The Noradrenergic system is a bundle of axons that originate in the locus coeruleus and ascends up into the neocortex, limbic system, and basal forebrain. Most of the neurons are projected to the posterior cortex which is important with sensory information, and alertness. The activation of the locus coeruleus and release of norepinephrine causes wakefulness and increases vigilance. The neurons that project into the basal forebrain impact cholinergic neurons that results in a flood of acetylcholine into the cerebral cortex.The Acetylcholinergic system has its neurons located in the pons and in the basal forebrain. Stimulation of these neurons result in cortical activity, shown from EEG records, and alertness. All of the other four neurotransmitters play a role in activating the acetylcholine neurons. Another arousal system is the dopaminergic system which releases dopamine that is produced by the substantia nigra. The neurons arise in the ventral tegmental area in the midbrain, and projects to the nucleus accumbens, the striatum forebrain, limbic system, and prefrontal cortex. The limbic system is important for control of mood and the nucleus accumbens signal excitement and arousal. The path terminating in the prefrontal cortex is important in regulating motor movements, especially reward oriented movements.The Serotonergic system which has almost all of its serotonergic neurons originating in the raphe nuclei. This system projects to the limbic system as well as the prefrontal cortex. Stimulation of these axons and release of serotonin causes cortical arousal and impacts locomotion as well as mood. The last system is the histamergenic system. The neurons are located in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus. These neurons send pathways to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and the basal forebrain, where is stimulate the release of acetylcholine into the cerebral cortex. All of these systems are very much linked and show similar redundancy. The pathways described are all ascending pathways, but there also arousal pathways that descend. One example is the Ventrolateral Preoptic area which release GABA inhibitors, which interrupt wakefulness and arousal. Neurotransmitters of the Arousal system such as Acetylcholine and norepinephrine work to inhibit the Ventrolateral preoptic area.