The mind should be studied through
... following research question: what happens in our brain when we
forget details about stressful life events, and how does this
process affect behavior?
Backward Conditioning: Mediation by the Context
... In this framework, with few backward pairings, the small number of trials does not permit subjects to estimate the temporal
separation of the unsignaled USs, thereby making the global context excitatory. Thus, at test following few backward-training
trials, the CS activates the representation of the ...
Conditioned Response Evoked by Nicotine Conditioned Stimulus
... Nicotine has both unconditioned and conditioned stimulus properties. Conditioned stimulus properties of nicotine may contribute to the
tenacity of nicotine addiction. The purpose of this experiment was to use neurohistochemical analysis of rapidly developing c-Fos protein
to elucidate neurobiologica ...
FREE Sample Here - College Test bank
... a. if infants are given normal opportunities to move about, their motor skills will naturally
unfold in a universal sequence.
b. teachers' expectations for their students' success will have little effect on how they actually
c. while a child's experiences in school will have an impact on hi ...
Cliff - USD Biology
... ◦ Ventral Tegmental Area …and Substantia Nigra
Stimulated by ACh from the pedunculopontine
and laterodorsal tegmenta = PPT & LDT
Stimulated by Glu from the Cortex
Inhibited by GABA from NAc & Striatum
The Roles of the Amygdala and the Hippocampus in Fear
... Aim of the Paper
The amygdala and hippocampus, two medial temporal lobe structures, are two independent
systems, which both seem to have unique functions in fear memory formation. The hippocampus
is necessary for the acquisition of declarative knowledge of the emotional significance of a
stimulus wh ...
Coexposure of Neonatal Mice to a Flame
... maze was raised 60 cm off the floor. Each arm was baited 3 cm from its outer
most walls by placing a small food pellet (5 mg) behind a low barrier preventing
the animal from seeing if a specific arm was baited or not. The animals were
tested on 3 consecutive days, one trial per day. The tests were p ...
Integrative Model of Rumination - Open Research Exeter
... potential insights and testable hypotheses relevant to these issues. Habits are behaviors that are
performed frequently in stable contexts (Ji & Wood, 2007). In classical conditioning and learning
theory (e.g., Hull, 1943), habits are learned behavioral responses to situational cues that have
Overshadowing of explicitly unpaired conditioned inhibition is
... preexposure treatment and overshadowing treatment on
conditioned excitation, discovering that the two normally
response-attenuating treatments counteracted each other,
producing strong excitatory responding to the target CS.
The present series of experiments was designed to explore
the nature of the ...
Reward loss and addiction: Opportunities for cross
... largely independently: reward loss and drug addiction. Opportunities
for cross-pollination of these research areas will be discussed in the following sections in relation to two points: (1) the psychobiological parallels between reward loss and addiction, centered on the effects of
some drugs of abu ...
Interactions between amygdala central nucleus and the ventral
... 55.8 ± 7.9% damage to VTA in Groups Contra, Ipsi and Uni,
respectively. Sparing of medial CeA neurons was mostly in the
anterior regions and sparing of VTA adjoined SNc. There were six and
eight animals with acceptable lesions to both CeA and VTA for
ipsilateral and contralateral lesions of CeA and ...
Overtraining Does Not Mitigate Contextual Fear Conditioning
... Contextual fear conditioning to an aversive foot shock unconditional stimulus (US) is rapidly learned and rarely requires more
than a few conditioning trials to establish. However, for any given
US, it is not known how many trials are required for asymptotic
performance and, therefore, how many tria ...
Viral restoration of dopamine signaling to the dorsal striatum
... inactive lever.
Results When DD mice were treated with 3,4-L-dihydroxyphenalanine (L-dopa) to restore dopamine signaling systemically, they were able to learn to press the active lever as
well as control mice, whereas mice lacking dopamine
would not perform the task. Importantly, DD mice treated
An Adaptation for Altruism? The Social Causes, Social Effects, and
... nonrelatives) and, perhaps, upstream reciprocity (a payit-forward style distribution of an unearned benefit to a
third party after one has received a benefit from another
benefactor). Gratitude therefore may have played a
unique role in human social evolution.
Background - Harvard University
... Around this time, Thorndike’s (1911) Law of Effect postulated that a reward
increases the frequency and intensity of a specific behavioral act that has resulted in
a reward before or, as a common interpretation has it, “rewards make you come back
for more.” This definition comes close to the idea of ...
Prelimbic to Accumbens Core Pathway Is Recruited in a Dopamine
... three tissue sections per rat. Regions ipsilateral to the CTb injection site were
quantified as they tend to have more retrogradely labeled neurons than contralateral connections (Brog et al., 1993). The percentage of CTb ⫹ cells that
coexpressed Fos was determined for each tissue section. Means of ...
response inhibition is differentially related to instrumental and
... cognitive impulsiveness, with instrumental and reactive aggressive behavior for the following
reasons. First, Dougherty, Bjork, Harper, el al. (2003) found that computer tasks designed to assess
response inhibition are more sensitive for discrimination between groups with and without
disruptive beha ...
Second-order conditioning in Drosophila
... (FOC). Classical conditioning is a form of learning wherein a neutral stimulus (CS,
such as a tone or smell) is associated with an unconditioned stimulus (US, such as food
or electric shock) to elicit a conditioned response (CR). This conditioned response exhibited by the animal is similar to the un ...
Establishing and Testing Conditioned Reinforcers
... However, these stimuli and access to food became available only after a variable number of
responses were emitted (i.e., VR schedule). During the testing phase, food reinforcers were
completely removed and only the buzzer and door opening were produced for responding on
a newly introduced lever. Aga ...
Implicit Operant Learning of Pain Sens
... contribute to the endogenous pain modulation system by modulating incoming signals and particularly inhibiting nociceptive input in the spinal cord. Central to this
system is the periaqueductal gray together with endogenous opioids . The
processing of nociceptive stimuli is differentiated in a ...
Everitt et al. (2000) in The Amygdala - Rudolf Cardinal
... suggest that the basolateral amygdala is required for a conditioned stimulus to gain access to the current
value of its specific unconditioned stimulus, while the central nucleus is responsible for conditioned
motivational responses using a simpler stimulus-response representation. Though these syst ...
Increased Mesolimbic GABA Concentration Blocks Heroin Self
... Heroin is the most rapidly acting and most abused of the
opiates. Unfortunately, its high abuse liability is not matched
by effective pharmacological therapy. Currently, the most
effective treatment strategy is opiate replacement therapy
with methadone or its derivative, l-␣-acetylmethadone. However ...
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is an approach to psychology that focuses on an individual's behavior. It combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and theory. It emerged in the early twentieth century as a reaction to depth psychology and other more traditional forms of psychology, which often had difficulty making predictions that could be tested using rigorous experimental methods. The primary tenet of methodological behaviorism, as expressed in the writings of John B. Watson and others, is that psychology should have only concerned itself with observable events. There has been a drastic shift in behaviorist philosophies throughout the 1940s and 1950s and again since the 1980s. Radical behaviorism is the conceptual piece purposed by B. F. Skinner that acknowledges the presence of private events—including cognition and emotions—but does not actually prompt that behavior to take place.From early psychology in the 19th century, the behaviorist school of thought ran concurrently and shared commonalities with the psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements in psychology into the 20th century; but also differed from the mental philosophy of the Gestalt psychologists in critical ways. Its main influences were Ivan Pavlov, who investigated classical conditioning—which depends on stimulus procedures to establish reflexes and respondent behaviors; Edward Thorndike and John B. Watson who rejected introspective methods and sought to restrict psychology to observable behaviors; and B.F. Skinner, who conducted research on operant conditioning (which uses antecedents and consequences to change behavior) and emphasized observing private events (see Radical behaviorism).In the second half of the 20th century, behaviorism was largely eclipsed as a result of the cognitive revolution which is when cognitive-behavioral therapy—that has demonstrable utility in treating certain pathologies, such as simple phobias, PTSD, and addiction—evolved. The application of behaviorism, known as applied behavior analysis, is employed for numerous circumstances, including organizational behavior management and fostering diet and fitness, to the treatment of mental disorders, such as autism and substance abuse. In addition, while behaviorism and cognitive schools of psychological thought may not agree theoretically, they have complemented each other in practical therapeutic applications, such as in clinical behavior analysis.