Module 27 Notes Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning A type
... Module 27 Notes
A type of associative learning (like classical conditioning).
Type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if
followed by a punisher.
The likelihood of a behavior’s occurrence is linked to ...
... * People have no free will – a person’s environment determines their behavior
* When born our mind is 'tabula rasa' (a blank slate).
* There is little difference between the learning that takes place in humans and that in other
animals. Therefore research can be carried out on animals as well as hum ...
... believed that people respond to their environment
through operant conditioning (Schunk, 2012).
Behaviorist theories ultimately explain how one
learns through documented behaviors and
tenancies as well as props and associations.
Overview of the Behaviorist Approach
... • (-) The approach is seen as mechanistic. Human beings are complex animals, we feel
emotions, we live in complex societies etc. To see humans as functioning in a mechanistic
manner is to over-simplify human behavior.
• (-) It excludes innate factors. We now know that genetic factors do play an enor ...
... Kamin): relationship between neutral and natural
stimulus must be not only temporal, but informational
(“A—sound—will lead to B—food”)
Operant conditioning (E.L. Thorndike, B.F. Skinner):
Successful or punishing result (law of cause-effect)
rather leads to complex/artificial behavior adoption
... can read the psychological aptitudes and
The only true science of the mind.
... Behaviorism should apply the techniques of animal
research(i.e. conditioning) to the study of human
Behavior can be reduced to relationships between
stimuli and responses, the S—R model.
A stimulus can be shown to cause a response or a
response can be tracked by a stimulus.
life’s mos ...
Behaviorism by Saul McLeod published Behaviorism (also called
... measured. Internal events, such as thinking should be explained through behavioral terms (or
* People have no free will – a person’s environment determines their behavior
* When born our mind is 'tabula rasa' (a blank slate).
* There is little difference between the learning ...
History of Neurology
... B-Susquehanna, Pennsylvania
Hamilton College BA/Harvard PhD Psychology (1931)
Influenced by Watson
Research at Harvard till 1936
Then U Minn, U of Indiana & back to Harvard 1948-1970
Developed field of Radical Behaviorism
– All actions have consequences of environmental reinforcement
– Humans react ...
Behaviorism and Cogntivism
... He developed a device called the "cumulative
recorder," which showed rates of responding as a
Using this device, he found that behavior did not
depend on the preceding stimulus as Watson and
Instead, Skinner found that behaviors were
dependent upon what happens ...
File - Ms. Thresher
... someone thank you or
perhaps a hug or kiss when
a child does a desirable
would be given when a
child misbehaves. The
negative reinforcer maybe
cleaning their room or
doing the dishes.
File - Farrell`s Class Page
... Organism’s behaviors are responses to environmental stimuli.
As individuals differ in their experiences, they will acquire different behaviors, and
subsequently, different personalities.
Changing environmental conditions can influence a person for the better.
Therefore, personality is not st ...
Behavioral Learning Theory
... Before learning about this theory I did not know about all these key words that are
affiliated with this one theory. Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on objectively
visible behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind. Behavior theorists define
learning as nothing ...
observational learning etc.
... SOCIAL LEARNING/OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
In social learning theory Albert Bandura (1977) states behavior is learned
from the environment through the process of observational
learning. Children observe the people around them behaving in various
ways. This is illustrated during the famous bobo doll expe ...
Crash Course #11 Learning
... Behaviorism: an empirically rigorous science focused on ___________________
behaviors and not unobservable _______________________ mental processes.
Learning: the process of ____________________, through
_____________________, new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.
What is a neutral s ...
Analysis of Behavior Using Operant Conditioning Methods
... Basic theories of learning and memory will be discussed, with a focus on how operant conditioning methods can
be utilized to gain in depth understanding of underlying cognitive processes, as pioneered by B.F. Skinner.
... Positive Reinforcement (Increases behavior)
Negative Reinforcement (Increases behavior)
Punishment (Decreases behavior) & its drawbacks
Historical Background of Animal Behavior
... The rise of Animal Behavior occurred in 3 lineages: Physiological (linked to
technology), Psychological, and Naturalistic
Physiological – did not concentrate on whole behavior
Willis - 1840 - 50 innate behavior programs
- nervous transmission - reflex
Pavlov - 1849 - 1936 Russian Physiologist - cond ...
... stimulus similar to the original CS without prior training with the second stimulus.
5. What is an example of spontaneous recovery?
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is an approach to psychology that focuses on an individual's behavior. It combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and theory. It emerged in the early twentieth century as a reaction to depth psychology and other more traditional forms of psychology, which often had difficulty making predictions that could be tested using rigorous experimental methods. The primary tenet of methodological behaviorism, as expressed in the writings of John B. Watson and others, is that psychology should have only concerned itself with observable events. There has been a drastic shift in behaviorist philosophies throughout the 1940s and 1950s and again since the 1980s. Radical behaviorism is the conceptual piece purposed by B. F. Skinner that acknowledges the presence of private events—including cognition and emotions—but does not actually prompt that behavior to take place.From early psychology in the 19th century, the behaviorist school of thought ran concurrently and shared commonalities with the psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements in psychology into the 20th century; but also differed from the mental philosophy of the Gestalt psychologists in critical ways. Its main influences were Ivan Pavlov, who investigated classical conditioning—which depends on stimulus procedures to establish reflexes and respondent behaviors; Edward Thorndike and John B. Watson who rejected introspective methods and sought to restrict psychology to observable behaviors; and B.F. Skinner, who conducted research on operant conditioning (which uses antecedents and consequences to change behavior) and emphasized observing private events (see Radical behaviorism).In the second half of the 20th century, behaviorism was largely eclipsed as a result of the cognitive revolution which is when cognitive-behavioral therapy—that has demonstrable utility in treating certain pathologies, such as simple phobias, PTSD, and addiction—evolved. The application of behaviorism, known as applied behavior analysis, is employed for numerous circumstances, including organizational behavior management and fostering diet and fitness, to the treatment of mental disorders, such as autism and substance abuse. In addition, while behaviorism and cognitive schools of psychological thought may not agree theoretically, they have complemented each other in practical therapeutic applications, such as in clinical behavior analysis.