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IB Biology Year 1 - Adapted from J. Lockwood, NPHS, Newbury Park, CA NOVA: Ghost in Your Genes (Epigenetics) – Viewing Guide BACKGROUND: "Ghost in Your Genes" focuses on epigenetic "switches" that turn genes "on" or "off." But not all switches are epigenetic; some are genetic. That is, other genes within the chromosome turn genes on or off. In an animal's embryonic stage, these gene switches play a main role in laying out the animal's basic body plan and perform other early functions; the epigenome begins to take over during the later stages of embryogenesis. 1. What was the purpose of the Human Genome Project? 2. Approximately how many genes do scientists think that the human genome has? 3. List three organisms that humans have genes in common with. 4. Describe the genetic basis of Angelman Syndrome in comparison with Prader-Willi Syndrome. 5. What does “epigenetics” literally mean? 6. What makes one cell different from another cell? 7. What is the function of the epigenome? 8. Identical twins have the same genome, yet can have different traits (i.e. one twin has cancer but the other does not). How is this explained? 9. What is the main idea of epigenetic therapy? 10. How did scientists explain why one identical twin could have autism and the other could not? 11. You inherit your genome, but the scientists in the video state that you are responsible for your epigenome. What do they mean by that? 12. What is the next goal for scientists (related to the Human Genome Project)?