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The Human Genome Project
• Started in 1990 at 20 government-funded
research centers in 6 countries
• Notable (and somewhat unexpected)
– 21,000 genes in the human genome
– Only about 2% of these code for proteins
– One gene is able to code for many proteins
– About 8 million single nucleotide
polymorphisms (SNPs)
How do we “sequence”?
“Whole-genome shotgun method”
• Proteomics:
– Study of all of an organism’s proteins, including their
identities, structures, interactions, and abundance
• Bioinformatics:
– Scientific field that combines science, computer
science, and information technology to enable the
discovery of new biological insights
• 2D Gel Electrophoresis:
– (key tool for proteomics) method that separates
proteins in a sample into individual spots
• Microarrays:
– 2D tool that arranges DNA molecules and the genes
they represent
1. Humans should be able to design
2. We should eradicate diseases.
3. The US should spend money on
mapping the genome.
4. Genes should be patented by the
scientists who discover them.