UNIT 7 DNA TEST A 1. When the __ for insulin is inserted into bacteria, they can be used to mass-produce insulin. a) chromosome b) gene c) fragment d) base 2. Who discovered the structure of DNA and made a model of it? a) Mendel b) Hershey and Chase c) Watson and Crick d) Wilkins and Franklin 3. Which of the following is NOT matched correctly? a) Chargaff – A=T & C=G b) Hershey & Chase - radioactive labels in virus DNA c) Griffith – X-ray diffraction photos d) Avery – DNA destroying enzymes 4. The base units of both DNA and RNA are a) amino acids b) nucleotides c) A, T, C, G d) A, C, G 5. Which is NOT correct? a) C is for cytosine b) tRNA is for transport RNA c) mRNA is for messenger RNA d) rRNA is for ribosomal RNA 6. The “Father of Genetics was a) James Watson b)Erwin Chargaff c) Francis Crick d) Gregor Mendel 7. What carries amino acids to the ribosome during translation? a) tRNA b) rRNA c) mRNA d) DNA 8. Individuals with 3 chromosome 21s have Down syndrome. Down syndrome is caused by a) point mutation b) frameshift mutation c) translocation d) nondisjuction 9. A change in an organisms genetic material is a) translation b) replication c) mutation d) transcription 10. Codons are 3-letter segments on mRNA that code for a) amino acids b) nucleotides c) mutations d) sugars 11. Changes in chromosome number are usually due to a) deletion b) nondisjunction c) duplication d) translocation 12. What makes up a ribosome? a) tRNA b) rRNA c) mRNA d) DNA 13. The process that makes a copy of RNA from DNA is a) translation b) replication c) mutation d) transcription 14. Which DNA strand would match up with this DNA: ATGC? a) ATGC b) TACG c) UACG d) CGTA 15. The process in which a gene is moved from one organism to another a) translocation b) genetic engineering c) frameshift mutation d) transcription 16. It is the order of DNA’s __ that determines an organism’s traits. a) bases b) phosphates c) sugars d) amino acids 17. In DNA, A always matches with __ and C always matches with __. a) G, T b) T, G c) G, A d) T, A 18. Which is NOT true of chromosome mutations? a) translocation – a piece is doubled b) deletion – a piece is lost c) inversion – a piece reattaches upside down d) duplication – a piece has 2 copies 19. When a defective gene is replaced with a good copy of the gene a) forensics b) gel electrophoresis c) translocation d) gene therapy 20. Which is NOT correct? a) DNA helicase separates DNA bases b) DNA polymerase both separates bases and adds matching bases c) RNA polymerase is used in transcription d) DNA polymerase is used in replication 21. What stores the protein code in the nucleus? a) tRNA b) rRNA c) mRNA d) DNA 22. Which BEST describes DNA’s shape? a) straight line b) steps c) twisted ladder d) curved 23. Scientists insert a jellyfish’s gene for bioluminence into a monkey. Who is the source organism? a) scientist b) jellyfish c) monkey d) bacteria 24. Mutations can be passed to offspring if they a) happen in body cells b) are point mutations c) due to transcription error d) happen in gametes 25. An mRNA has the codons AAA – UUU – CGC, but an A is deleted during transcription. What problem might this cause? a) a chromosome mutation b) less chromosomes in a gamete c) a frameshift mutation d) a translocation 26. Mistakes in chromosome structure are made during a) translation b) crossing-over or replication c) transcription d) a frameshift 27. The failure of chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis is a) crossing-over b) nondisjunction c) frameshift mutation d) point mutation 28. Which is found in RNA but not DNA? a) Adenine b) Thymine c) Guanine d) Uracil 29. Which is NOT correctly matched? a) sickle cell anemia – poor circulation b) hemophilia – mutated transport protein c) cystic fibrosis – mucus clogs organs d) Turner’s syndrome – only 1 X chromosome 30. Which RNA strand would match up with this DNA: AGCA? a) UCGU b) UGCU c) TCGT d) AGCA 31. What carries the protein code from the nucleus to the ribosome? a) tRNA b) rRNA c) mRNA d) DNA 32. The process that produces protein using RNA is a) translation b) replication c) mutation d) transcription 33. What enzymes are used to cut DNA segments in genetic engineering? a) restriction b) DNA polymerase c) DNA helicase d) RNA polymerase 34. A change in a single base of DNA or RNA is a __ mutation. a) chromosome b) frameshift c) point d) meiotic 35. Scientists insert a jellyfish’s gene for bioluminence into a monkey. Who is the target organism? a) scientist b) jellyfish c) monkey d) bacteria 36. The DNA of two different organisms that have been combined in genetic engineering is called a) target DNA b) source DNA c) recombinant DNA d) mDNA 37. Which is NOT true? a) gel electrophoresis produces DNA fingerprints b) forensics is the scientific investigation of crime c) DNA samples can be obtained from hair, bone, or blood d) even identical twins have very different DNA fingerprints 38. The process that makes a copy of DNA from DNA is a) translation b) replication c) mutation d) transcription 39. Griffith made his contribution to genetics by a) showing that viruses have DNA b) showing that bacteria can transfer genetic material c) tracing DNA with radioactive labels d) making X-ray diffraction photographs 40. Cloning is accomplished by removing the __ from a cell of the wanted animal and inserting it into a “stripped” egg. a) mitochondrion b) centrioles c) nucleus d) ribosome Discussion (10 points each): Write one or more paragraphs to answer each question (a paragraph has 1 topic sentence & at least 3 supporting sentences). Make sure your answers show: 1) CORRECTNESS, 2) ORGANIZATION, 3) COMPLETENESS, and 4) UNDERSTANDING. Draw pictures if necessary. 41. Discuss 2 differences and 2 similarities between DNA and RNA. 42. Describe what happens in each type of chromosome mutation: deletion, duplication, inversion, and translocation.