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Transcript
BiologyMr. Karns
Biology
Cells
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Eukaryotic Cell Structures
Eukaryotic Cell Structures
Structures within a eukaryotic cell that perform
important cellular functions are known as
organelles.
Cell biologists divide the eukaryotic cell into two
major parts: the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
The Cytoplasm is the portion of the cell outside
the nucleus.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Eukaryotic Cell Structures
Plant Cell
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Smooth
endoplasmic
reticulum
Nuclear envelope
Ribosome (free)
Rough endoplasmic
reticulum
Ribosome
(attached)
Golgi
apparatus
Cell wall
Cell membrane
Chloroplast
Mitochondrion
Vacuole
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Eukaryotic Cell Structures
Animal Cell
Nucleolus
Smooth endoplasmic
reticulum
Nucleus
Nuclear envelope
Rough
endoplasmic
reticulum
Ribosome (free)
Cell membrane
Ribosome
(attached)
Centrioles
Mitochondrion
Golgi
apparatus
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Nucleus
What is the function of the nucleus?
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Nucleus
Nucleus
The nucleus is the control center of the cell.
The nucleus contains nearly all the cell's
DNA and with it the coded instructions
for making proteins and other important
molecules.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Nucleus
The Nucleus
Chromatin
Nucleolus
Nuclear envelope
Nuclear
pores
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Nucleus
The nucleus is
surrounded by a
nuclear envelope
composed of two
membranes.
The envelope is
dotted with nuclear
pores, which allow
material to move in
and out of the
nucleus.
Nuclear
envelope
Nuclear
pores
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Nucleus
The granular material in the nucleus is called
chromatin.
Chromatin consists of DNA bound to protein.
Chromatin
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Nucleus
When a cell divides, chromatin condenses to form
chromosomes.
Chromosomes contain the genetic information that is
passed from one generation of cells to the next.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Nucleus
Most nuclei also contain a nucleolus.
The nucleolus is where the assembly of ribosomes
begins.
Nucleolus
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Ribosomes
What is the function of the ribosomes?
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Ribosomes
Ribosomes
One of the most important jobs carried out in
the cell is making proteins.
Proteins are assembled on ribosomes.
Ribosomes are small particles of RNA and
protein found throughout the cytoplasm.
Often they are on or near the E>R.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Ribosomes
Ribosomes produce proteins by following coded
instructions that come from the nucleus.
Cells that are active in protein synthesis are often
packed with ribosomes.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Endoplasmic Reticulum
What is the function of the endoplasmic
reticulum?
Be sure to add theses roots to your derivations sheet
Endo- within or toward the inside
Plasmic- plasm (liquid or without shape)
Reticulum- network or cross fibers
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Eukaryotic cells contain an internal
membrane system called the endoplasmic
reticulum, or ER.
The endoplasmic reticulum is where
lipid components of the cell membrane
are assembled, along with proteins and
other materials that are exported from
the cell.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Rough
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Ribosomes
are what
make it the
rough ER
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Endoplasmic Reticulum
There are two types of ER— rough and smooth.
The portion of the ER involved in protein synthesis is
called rough endoplasmic reticulum, or rough ER.
Ribosomes are found on the surface of rough ER.
Rough ER is abundant in cells that produce large
amounts of protein for export.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth ER does not have ribosomes on its surface.
Smooth ER contains collections of enzymes that
perform specialized tasks, such as synthesis of
membrane lipids and detoxification of drugs.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Golgi Apparatus
What is the function of the Golgi
apparatus?
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Golgi Apparatus
Golgi Apparatus
Proteins produced in the rough ER move into the
Golgi apparatus.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Golgi Apparatus
The Golgi apparatus appears as a stack of closely
apposed membranes.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Golgi Apparatus
The Golgi apparatus modifies, sorts, and
packages proteins and other materials from the
endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or
secretion outside the cell.
From the Golgi apparatus, proteins are then
“shipped” to their final destinations
throughout the cell or outside of the cell.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Golgi Apparatus
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Lysosomes and digestion
What is the function of lysosomes?
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Lysosomes
Lysosomes
Lysosomes are small organelles filled with
enzymes.
Lysosomes break down lipids, carbohydrates, and
proteins into small molecules that can be used by
the rest of the cell.
Lysosomes also break down organelles that have
outlived their usefulness.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Lysosomes
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Vacuoles
What is the function of vacuoles?
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Vacuoles
Vacuoles
Some cells contain saclike structures called
vacuoles that store materials such as water, salts,
proteins, and carbohydrates.
In animal cells there are water vacuoles, waste
vacuoles, food vacuoles.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Vacuoles
In many plant cells there
is a single, large central
vacuole filled with liquid.
The pressure of the
central vacuole allows
plants to support heavy
structures such as leaves
and flowers.
Vacuole
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Vacuoles are also found
in some unicellular
organisms and in some
animals.
Vacuoles
Contractile vacuole
The paramecium contains
a contractile vacuole that
pumps excess water out
of the cell.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Contractile vacuole
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
What is the function of the mitochondria?
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Mitochondria
Nearly all eukaryotic
cells contain
mitochondria.
Mitochondria convert
the chemical energy
stored in food into ATP
energy for use in the
cell.
Mitochondrion
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Mitochondria and ATP
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Mitochondria are enclosed by two membranes—an
outer membrane and an inner membrane.
The inner membrane is folded up inside the
organelle.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
What is the function of chloroplasts?
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Chloroplasts
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Chloroplast
Plants and some other
organisms contain
chloroplasts.
Chloroplasts capture
energy from sunlight
and convert it into
chemical energy in a
process called
photosynthesis.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Chloroplasts are surrounded by two membranes.
Chloroplasts contain the green pigment chlorophyll.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Cytoskeleton
What are the functions of the
cytoskeleton?
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Cytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton
Eukaryotic cells are given their shape and internal
organization by the cytoskeleton.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton is a network of protein
filaments that helps the cell to maintain
its shape. The cytoskeleton is also
involved in movement.
The cytoskeleton is made up of:
• microfilaments
• microtubules
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Cytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton
Cell membrane
Endoplasmic
reticulum
Microtubule
Microfilament
Ribosomes
Mitochondrion
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Cytoskeleton
Microfilaments
Microfilaments:
• are threadlike structures made up of the
protein actin.
• form extensive networks in some cells.
• produce a tough, flexible framework that
supports the cell.
• help some cells move.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Cytoskeleton
Microtubules
Microtubules are hollow structures made up of
proteins known as tubulins. Microtubules:
• maintain cell shape.
• are important in cell division.
• build projections from the cell surface—cilia
and flagella—that enable some cells to swim
rapidly through liquids.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Cytoskeleton
In animal cells, structures known as centrioles are
formed from tubulin.
Centrioles are located near the nucleus and help to
organize cell division.
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Cytoskeleton
Do you know these roots of Latin terms?
Endo ….. Endo…..
Hyper…
Hypo…plasm… cyto…. chloro…
reticulum
… som or soma ……. Chromo…a…. Eu…..
Extra….
Glyco….. Lyso….. Pro….. Vacu…
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7-2 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Cytoskeleton
Do you know these roots of Latin terms?
Endo ….. within
Exo….. outer
Hyper…over or more than
Hypo…less than or under
plasm… fluid or liquid
cyto….Cell chloro…green
reticulum …channel or canal
soma ……. Body
Chromo…colored
a…. Not
Eu….. True
Glyco…..sweet
Extra….outside
Lyso…..loosen or rupture
Pro…..before or early
Vacu…empty
PUT THEM ON YOUR DERIVATIONAL TERM SHEET
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7-2
Click to Launch:
Continue to:
- or -
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7-2
In the nucleus of a cell, the DNA is usually visible
as
a. a dense region called the nucleolus.
b. the nuclear envelope.
c. granular material called chromatin.
d. condensed bodies called chloroplasts.
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7-2
Two functions of vacuoles are storing materials
and helping to
a. break down organelles.
b. assemble proteins.
c. maintain homeostasis.
d. make new organelles.
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7-2
Chloroplasts are found in the cells of
a. plants only.
b. plants and some other organisms.
c. all eukaryotes.
d. most prokaryotes.
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7-2
Which of the following is NOT a function of the
Golgi apparatus?
a. synthesize proteins.
b. modify proteins.
c. sort proteins.
d. package proteins.
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7-2
Which of the following is a function of the
cytoskeleton?
a. manufactures new cell organelles
b. assists in movement of some cells from one
place to another
c. releases energy in cells
d. modifies, sorts, and packages proteins
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END OF SECTION