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Transcript


The scientific study of behavior and
mental processes that is tested
through scientific research.
Four Goals of Psychology:
1. Describe
2. Explain
3. Predict
4. Influence




Wilhelm Wundt (18321920)
Father of Psychology
1st Laboratory of Psychology
Structuralist
◦ a psychologist who studied the basic
elements that make up conscious
mental experiences.

Introspection - “inner
experiences”
William James
(1842-1910)


1st Psychology Class at Harvard
Influenced by Darwin’s Survival
of the Species

Influenced Motivation & Emotion

Functionalist
- a psychologist who studied
the function (rather than the
structure) of consciousness.
Why do
we run away if we notice that we are in danger?
William
James
Because we are afraid of what will happen if we don't.
(1842-1910)

obvious (and Class
incorrect)at
answer
to a seemingly trivial
1st This
Psychology
Harvard
question has been the central concern of a century-old debate about
 Influenced
by Darwin’s Survival
the
nature of our emotions.
of the Species
William James conceived of an emotion in terms of a
 Influenced
& occurrence
Emotionof an arousing
sequence
of eventsMotivation
that starts with the
stimulus (the sympathetic nervous system or the parasympathetic
 Functionalist
nervous system); and ends with a passionate feeling, a conscious
- a psychologist
emotional
experience. who studied
the function (rather than the
structure)
of consciousness.
A major goal
of emotion research is still to elucidate this
stimulus-to-feeling sequence — to figure out what processes come
between the stimulus and the feeling.

Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911)

World Traveler



Cousin of Charles Darwin
- Heredity
- coined the phrase
“nature versus nurture”
“Wouldn’t the world be a
better place if we could get
rid of less desirable people?”
His theories are now discredited!









Point of View: Focus is on the unconscious
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Stage Theorist (Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital)
Studies in Hysteria
Unconscious Mind
Dream Interpretation
Free Association
Defense Mechanisms
Therapist’s Role: Objective
In the Western world, until the 17th century,
hysteria referred to a medical condition thought to be
particular to women and caused by disturbances of
the uterus (from the Greek ὑστέρα "hystera" =
 Point of View: Focus is on the unconscious
uterus), such as when a baby emerges from the
 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
female
birth canal.
 Stage
Theorist
(Oral, Anal, Phallic,
Latency,
Genital)
Freudian
psychoanalytic
theory
attributed
hysterical
symptoms
to the subconscious mind's
 Studies
in Hysteria
attempt
to protect the
patient from psychic stress.
 Unconscious
Mind




Dream Interpretation
Free Association
Defense Mechanisms
Therapist’s Role: Objective
Alfred Adler
(1870-1937)


Carl Jung
(pronounced Young)
(1875–1961)

Karen Horney
(pronounced “Hornay”)
(1885-1952)
Anna Freud
(1895-1982)

John Bowlby
(1907-1990)

Margaret Mahler
(1897-1985)


Point of View: Behavior can be easily
studied, shaped, and changed.
 Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
 Classical Conditioning: Pavlov’s Dogs
John B. Watson (18781958) Classical
Conditioning
◦ Little Albert
 B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Operant Conditioning
◦ Skinner’s Rats
◦ Positive Reinforcement
◦ Negative Reinforcement



Point of View: Human nature is constantly
evolving and self-directed.
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
◦ Unconditional Positive Regard, Empathy, Congruence

Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
◦ Hierarchy of Needs
◦ Father of Modern Management Psychology

Rollo May (1909-1994)
◦ Existential Psychology
Point of View: Focus on how we
process, store, and use information, &
how information influences our thinking,
language, problem solving, & creativity.


Albert Ellis (1913-2007)
◦ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
(REBT)
 form of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) &
was first expounded by Ellis in the mid 1950s;
development continued until his death in 2007.

Aaron Beck (1921)
◦ Founder of Cognitive Therapy
 seeks to help the patient overcome
difficulties by identifying &
changing dysfunctional thinking,
behavior, & emotional responses

Point of View : studies the
human lifespan & how
changes in development
affect one’s behavior and
motivation.
 Erik Erikson (1902-1994)
Jean Piaget
 (1896-1980)

Point
of View:
Perception is more than the
sum of its parts
- it involves a “whole pattern” or,
in German, a Gestalt.

Fritz Perls (1893-1970) – Founder of Gestalt
◦ Laura Perls
◦ Empty Chair Technique
Max Wertheimer
(1880-1943)

Wolfgang
Kohler
(1887-1967)


Kurt Koffka
(1886-1941)

Point of View : emphasizes the impact

PET scans and CAT scans

Neurotransmitters

Genetics
of biology on behavior.

Point of View : involves studying the
influence of cultural and ethnic similarities
and differences on behavior and social
functioning.
◦ Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Immigration

Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
◦ Zone of Proximal
Development
 the difference btwn what a learner
can do w/o help & what he can do
with help.