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The scientific study of behavior and
mental processes that is tested
through scientific research.
Four Goals of Psychology:
1. Describe
2. Explain
3. Predict
4. Influence
Wilhelm Wundt (18321920)
Father of Psychology
1st Laboratory of Psychology
◦ a psychologist who studied the basic
elements that make up conscious
mental experiences.
Introspection - “inner
William James
1st Psychology Class at Harvard
Influenced by Darwin’s Survival
of the Species
Influenced Motivation & Emotion
- a psychologist who studied
the function (rather than the
structure) of consciousness.
Why do
we run away if we notice that we are in danger?
Because we are afraid of what will happen if we don't.
obvious (and Class
to a seemingly trivial
1st This
question has been the central concern of a century-old debate about
 Influenced
by Darwin’s Survival
nature of our emotions.
of the Species
William James conceived of an emotion in terms of a
 Influenced
& occurrence
Emotionof an arousing
of eventsMotivation
that starts with the
stimulus (the sympathetic nervous system or the parasympathetic
 Functionalist
nervous system); and ends with a passionate feeling, a conscious
- a psychologist
experience. who studied
the function (rather than the
of consciousness.
A major goal
of emotion research is still to elucidate this
stimulus-to-feeling sequence — to figure out what processes come
between the stimulus and the feeling.
Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911)
World Traveler
Cousin of Charles Darwin
- Heredity
- coined the phrase
“nature versus nurture”
“Wouldn’t the world be a
better place if we could get
rid of less desirable people?”
His theories are now discredited!
Point of View: Focus is on the unconscious
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Stage Theorist (Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital)
Studies in Hysteria
Unconscious Mind
Dream Interpretation
Free Association
Defense Mechanisms
Therapist’s Role: Objective
In the Western world, until the 17th century,
hysteria referred to a medical condition thought to be
particular to women and caused by disturbances of
the uterus (from the Greek ὑστέρα "hystera" =
 Point of View: Focus is on the unconscious
uterus), such as when a baby emerges from the
 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
birth canal.
 Stage
(Oral, Anal, Phallic,
to the subconscious mind's
 Studies
in Hysteria
to protect the
patient from psychic stress.
 Unconscious
Dream Interpretation
Free Association
Defense Mechanisms
Therapist’s Role: Objective
Alfred Adler
Carl Jung
(pronounced Young)
Karen Horney
(pronounced “Hornay”)
Anna Freud
John Bowlby
Margaret Mahler
Point of View: Behavior can be easily
studied, shaped, and changed.
 Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
 Classical Conditioning: Pavlov’s Dogs
John B. Watson (18781958) Classical
◦ Little Albert
 B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Operant Conditioning
◦ Skinner’s Rats
◦ Positive Reinforcement
◦ Negative Reinforcement
Point of View: Human nature is constantly
evolving and self-directed.
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
◦ Unconditional Positive Regard, Empathy, Congruence
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
◦ Hierarchy of Needs
◦ Father of Modern Management Psychology
Rollo May (1909-1994)
◦ Existential Psychology
Point of View: Focus on how we
process, store, and use information, &
how information influences our thinking,
language, problem solving, & creativity.
Albert Ellis (1913-2007)
◦ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
 form of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) &
was first expounded by Ellis in the mid 1950s;
development continued until his death in 2007.
Aaron Beck (1921)
◦ Founder of Cognitive Therapy
 seeks to help the patient overcome
difficulties by identifying &
changing dysfunctional thinking,
behavior, & emotional responses
Point of View : studies the
human lifespan & how
changes in development
affect one’s behavior and
 Erik Erikson (1902-1994)
Jean Piaget
 (1896-1980)
of View:
Perception is more than the
sum of its parts
- it involves a “whole pattern” or,
in German, a Gestalt.
Fritz Perls (1893-1970) – Founder of Gestalt
◦ Laura Perls
◦ Empty Chair Technique
Max Wertheimer
Kurt Koffka
Point of View : emphasizes the impact
PET scans and CAT scans
of biology on behavior.
Point of View : involves studying the
influence of cultural and ethnic similarities
and differences on behavior and social
◦ Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Immigration
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
◦ Zone of Proximal
 the difference btwn what a learner
can do w/o help & what he can do
with help.