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Unit 1 AP History and Approaches
Psychology: study of behavioral and mental
processing.
Psychology is a Behavioral Science.
Physiological Needs:
History and Perspectives in Psychological Science
Pseudoscience:
Phrenology:
Greeks Socrates/Plato /Aristotle: started asking how the
body and mind were related?
Psychological Needs:
4 Goals of Psychology:
1.
2.
3.
4.
D
E
P
I
Psychology is Empirical: Idea that what we know
comes from experience, observation/experimentation.
Give def. and ex. Of each:
Applied Research:
Basic Research:
Rene Descartes: “I think therefore I am”
Innate: meaning we are born with it.
John Locke: Disagreed with Rene and said that we are born with certain
knowledge and principles that help us to become part of society.
Tabula Rasa:
Charles Darwin:
1. Theory of Natural Selection:
2. Published Origin of Species
Gestalt:
(The whole is Greater than the sum of its parts)
Modern Psychology’s Roots
Wilhelm Wundt Remember these 3 things:
1.
2.
3. Introspection:
Structuralism: Edward Titchener (Wund’ts student) Try to understand the structure
of conscious experience by analyzing the intensity, clarity and quality of its basic parts.
Example:
The scientific method is used to reduce errors and biases.
A theory is a proposed explanation. In Psychology we will be
studying different theories.
Hypothesis moves from an educated guess to a predication
between Relationships between variables
Functionalism: William James Theory that emphasized the functions of
consciousness.
Example:
William James:
Nature vs. Nurture?
Contemporary Approaches
Perspectives
Focus
Key questions & Influential
People
Cognitive
Thinking skills.
How we process
information.
Brain, neurons,
nervous system
Jean Piaget,
Biological
How does the brain communicate
with the body?
Social-cultural
Impact of social
Milgram
factors on behavior
and personality
Evolutionary
Natural selectionsurvival
Charles Darwin
Behavioral
Nature vs. nurture
debate
Is your behavior learned from
others? Punishments and Rewards
Ivan Pavlov
Psychodynamic or
Psychoanalysis
Unconscious
conflicts/motivatio
ns
Sigmund Freud
Humanistic/
Positive Psychology
Free will, improve
self-esteem and
self- concept
Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow`
Psychologist:
Perspectives are specific approaches or viewpoints used to explain
mental processes and behavior
The Eclectic approach is when you use multiple theories to explain
human behavior.
How would you explain the Hulk’s behavior with these
approaches and how would you treat him?
Mary Calkins
Kenneth & Mamie Clark
Stanley Hall
Francis Sumner
Psychiatrist:
What are Psychology’s Main Subfields?
Subfields
Focus
Clinical
Counseling
Developmental
Educational
Personality
Positive
Community
Engineering
Industrial –Organizational
Psychiatrist
Psychometrics
Neuropsychologist
Sport
School psychologist
Review
1. Are a major league baseball player in a
slump?
2. Are a corporate executive that wants to
increase employee moral?
3. Have a child you suspect may have a
learning difficulty?
4. Want to develop a valid, reliable test to
measure student performance in a school
district?
Type of Psychologist?
How can you study better? SQ3R
What is the testing effect?