Unit 1 AP History and Approaches Psychology: study of behavioral and mental processing. Psychology is a Behavioral Science. Physiological Needs: History and Perspectives in Psychological Science Pseudoscience: Phrenology: Greeks Socrates/Plato /Aristotle: started asking how the body and mind were related? Psychological Needs: 4 Goals of Psychology: 1. 2. 3. 4. D E P I Psychology is Empirical: Idea that what we know comes from experience, observation/experimentation. Give def. and ex. Of each: Applied Research: Basic Research: Rene Descartes: “I think therefore I am” Innate: meaning we are born with it. John Locke: Disagreed with Rene and said that we are born with certain knowledge and principles that help us to become part of society. Tabula Rasa: Charles Darwin: 1. Theory of Natural Selection: 2. Published Origin of Species Gestalt: (The whole is Greater than the sum of its parts) Modern Psychology’s Roots Wilhelm Wundt Remember these 3 things: 1. 2. 3. Introspection: Structuralism: Edward Titchener (Wund’ts student) Try to understand the structure of conscious experience by analyzing the intensity, clarity and quality of its basic parts. Example: The scientific method is used to reduce errors and biases. A theory is a proposed explanation. In Psychology we will be studying different theories. Hypothesis moves from an educated guess to a predication between Relationships between variables Functionalism: William James Theory that emphasized the functions of consciousness. Example: William James: Nature vs. Nurture? Contemporary Approaches Perspectives Focus Key questions & Influential People Cognitive Thinking skills. How we process information. Brain, neurons, nervous system Jean Piaget, Biological How does the brain communicate with the body? Social-cultural Impact of social Milgram factors on behavior and personality Evolutionary Natural selectionsurvival Charles Darwin Behavioral Nature vs. nurture debate Is your behavior learned from others? Punishments and Rewards Ivan Pavlov Psychodynamic or Psychoanalysis Unconscious conflicts/motivatio ns Sigmund Freud Humanistic/ Positive Psychology Free will, improve self-esteem and self- concept Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow` Psychologist: Perspectives are specific approaches or viewpoints used to explain mental processes and behavior The Eclectic approach is when you use multiple theories to explain human behavior. How would you explain the Hulk’s behavior with these approaches and how would you treat him? Mary Calkins Kenneth & Mamie Clark Stanley Hall Francis Sumner Psychiatrist: What are Psychology’s Main Subfields? Subfields Focus Clinical Counseling Developmental Educational Personality Positive Community Engineering Industrial –Organizational Psychiatrist Psychometrics Neuropsychologist Sport School psychologist Review 1. Are a major league baseball player in a slump? 2. Are a corporate executive that wants to increase employee moral? 3. Have a child you suspect may have a learning difficulty? 4. Want to develop a valid, reliable test to measure student performance in a school district? Type of Psychologist? How can you study better? SQ3R What is the testing effect?