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Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology
A Brief History and Introduction
psychology has a long past
but a short history
Cartoon s and Attention Span
A Few Historic Moments
5,000 BC evidence
of trephination.
Egyptian mummifying
process saves heart,
throws out “useless brain”.
Quacks and Priests
of Middle Ages
remove “stones of
Frank Mesmer
details his cure
for some mental
Phineas Gage’s accident,
1848, reveals functions of
frontal lobe.
Dr. Gall’s Phrenology,
1808: personality revealed
by bumps on head.
Pavlov (1903) explores
conditioned responses using
dogs and dinner bells
1973, brain imaging
BF Skinner researches
operant conditioning,
Pre Scientific Psychology:
5th Century Greek Philosophers
Established fundamental ideas in the study of human
behavior (role of five senses; cause and effect in
nature; capacity for rational thought make humans
People are motivated to seek pleasure and avoid pain.
(384-382 BCE)
Mind and body can exist separately - dualism.
Should rely on rational thought and introspection - the
careful examination of one’s own thoughts and emotions.
“know thyself”
(470-399 BE)
17th Century Philosophers
Supporter of Socrates’s idea of dualism.
Believed the base of brain connected mind and body was
the seat for the body’s soul where thoughts are formed.
“I think, therefore I am”
People are born a “blank slate” – without knowledge
and experiences.
Knowledge gained from experiences through
observation; planted early seeds of the scientific method
– system of gathering data with limited bias.
John Locke
a turning point….
Charles Darwin
Darwin’s theory of natural selection – adapting to
environment; If adaptation of animals can be
study, can the same idea apply to human behavior?
Early Leaders and Approaches in the
Study of Psychology
"Speaking of fruitcakes, any plans for the holidays?"
The Science of It
Empirical Evidence
Acquired through experimentation or observation
Anecdotal Data
Informal, unscientific data based on limited
observations or experiences