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Download Structuralism Functionalism Gestalt Psychoanalysis Behaviorism
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Directions: Examine the information in the three columns. The first details the five early perspectives of psychology, the second key figures in the development of these schools of thought and the final column gives a description of the perspective. First color code the school, its key figure(s) and the description, then cut out the boxes, organize and attach them to another sheet of paper. Sigmund Freud Structuralism Focused on how abnormal behavior, personality and everyday behavior was impacted by our unconscious. Believed that most thoughts occurred beyond conscious thought and influenced almost every aspect of life. The unconscious could be examined through dream analysis and free association Believed psychology should become more scientific and be based on the study of peoples immediate experiences. Used introspection as the primary method of data collection in experiments. Analyzed the consciousness by breaking it down into basic elements and studied how those elements were connected. G. Stanley Hall Functionalism William James Defined psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior. Believed the mind to be a black box which could not be known or studied objectively. Focused on shaping behavior through operant conditioning and altering stimuli to observe the response and alter behavior. B.F. Skinner Gestalt Edward B. Titchener Psychoanalysis John B. Watson Max Wertheimer Behaviorism Wilhelm Wundt Focused on the purpose of consciousness and behavior and emphasized individual differences. Asked how the mind functions and adapts to the environment. Influenced by Darwin First American school of psychology Studied the immediate experience of the whole organism. Reaction against earlier schools that broke down consciousness into parts . Believed , “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” Used visual stimulus and ‘optical illusions’ Still part of the modern study of sensation and perception in psychology.