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Examine the information in the three columns. The first details the five
early perspectives of psychology, the second key figures in the
development of these schools of thought and the final column gives a
description of the perspective.
First color code the school, its key figure(s) and the description, then cut
out the boxes, organize and attach them to another sheet of paper.
Sigmund Freud
Focused on how abnormal behavior, personality and everyday behavior was
impacted by our unconscious.
Believed that most thoughts occurred beyond conscious thought and influenced
almost every aspect of life.
The unconscious could be examined through dream analysis and free association
Believed psychology should become more scientific and be based on the study of
peoples immediate experiences.
Used introspection as the primary method of data collection in experiments.
Analyzed the consciousness by breaking it down into basic elements and studied
how those elements were connected.
G. Stanley Hall
William James
Defined psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior.
Believed the mind to be a black box which could not be known or studied
Focused on shaping behavior through operant conditioning and altering stimuli to
observe the response and alter behavior.
B.F. Skinner
Edward B. Titchener
John B. Watson
Max Wertheimer
Wilhelm Wundt
Focused on the purpose of consciousness and behavior and emphasized individual
Asked how the mind functions and adapts to the environment.
Influenced by Darwin
First American school of psychology
Studied the immediate experience of the whole organism.
Reaction against earlier schools that broke down consciousness into parts .
Believed , “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”
Used visual stimulus and ‘optical illusions’
Still part of the modern study of sensation and perception in psychology.