Download Ch 17 Evolution of Populations

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Point mutation wikipedia, lookup

Artificial gene synthesis wikipedia, lookup

Polycomb Group Proteins and Cancer wikipedia, lookup

Genome (book) wikipedia, lookup

Microevolution wikipedia, lookup

Designer baby wikipedia, lookup

Genomic imprinting wikipedia, lookup

Gene expression programming wikipedia, lookup

Epigenetics of human development wikipedia, lookup

Gene wikipedia, lookup

Saethre–Chotzen syndrome wikipedia, lookup

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis wikipedia, lookup

Nutriepigenomics wikipedia, lookup

Gene expression profiling wikipedia, lookup

Site-specific recombinase technology wikipedia, lookup

Population genetics wikipedia, lookup

History of genetic engineering wikipedia, lookup

Genetic engineering wikipedia, lookup

Biology and consumer behaviour wikipedia, lookup

Genome evolution wikipedia, lookup

Minimal genome wikipedia, lookup

Epistasis wikipedia, lookup

Ridge (biology) wikipedia, lookup

RNA-Seq wikipedia, lookup

Gene nomenclature wikipedia, lookup

Gene desert wikipedia, lookup

Therapeutic gene modulation wikipedia, lookup

Helitron (biology) wikipedia, lookup

Non-coding DNA wikipedia, lookup

Vectors in gene therapy wikipedia, lookup

Epigenetics in learning and memory wikipedia, lookup

Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases wikipedia, lookup

Cancer epigenetics wikipedia, lookup

Epigenetics of diabetes Type 2 wikipedia, lookup

Gene therapy wikipedia, lookup

No-SCAR (Scarless Cas9 Assisted Recombineering) Genome Editing wikipedia, lookup

Mutation wikipedia, lookup

Koinophilia wikipedia, lookup

Frameshift mutation wikipedia, lookup

Oncogenomics wikipedia, lookup

Hox gene wikipedia, lookup

Adaptive evolution in the human genome wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
1 Review What is a molecular clock
Explain Why do molecular clocks use mutations
that have no effect on phenotype
2 Relate Cause and Effect Why is gene duplication
important in evolution
3 Infer In evolution, why have small changes in Hox
genes had a great impact
CH 17 EVOLUTION OF POPULATIONS
17.4 Molecular Evolution
Copying Genes

Sometimes crossing-over involves an unequal
swapping of DNA so that one chromosome in the
pair gets extra DNA.
Duplicate Genes Evolve



Sometimes copies of a gene undergo mutations
that change their function
Original gene is still around
New genes can evolve without affecting the
original gene function or product.
Duplicate Genes Evolve
Gene Families


Multiple copies of a duplicated gene can turn into
a group of related genes
Produce similar proteins.
Molecular Clocks

Uses mutation rates in DNA to estimate the time
that two species have been evolving
independently.
Neutral Mutations as “Ticks”


Neutral mutations occur at a steady rate
More difference the longer the separation.
Calibrating the Clock


Genes accumulate mutations at different rates
Compare the number of mutations in a particular
gene in species whose age has been determined by
other methods.
Hox Genes and Evolution

Small changes in Hox
gene activity during
embryological
development can
produce large changes
in adult animals.
Change in a Hox Gene

Mutation in a single Hox
gene (Ubx) “turns off”
the growth of some
pairs of legs.
Fish in Two Lakes

A research team studied two lakes in an area that
sometimes experiences flooding. Each lake
contained two types of similar fish: a dull brown
and an iridescent gold. The team wondered how all
the fish were related and considered the two
hypotheses diagrammed on the next slide.
Interpret Visuals What does hypothesis a indicate
about the ancestry of the fish in lake 1 and lake 2?
What does hypothesis B indicate
2.
Compare and Contrast According to the two
hypotheses, what is the key difference in the way the
brown and gold fish population might have formed?
3.
Draw Conclusions A
DNA analysis showed
that the brown and gold
fish from Lake 1 are
most closely related.
Which hypothesis does
this evidence support?
1.