Download Ch 17 Evolution of Populations

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1 Review What is a molecular clock
Explain Why do molecular clocks use mutations
that have no effect on phenotype
2 Relate Cause and Effect Why is gene duplication
important in evolution
3 Infer In evolution, why have small changes in Hox
genes had a great impact
17.4 Molecular Evolution
Copying Genes
Sometimes crossing-over involves an unequal
swapping of DNA so that one chromosome in the
pair gets extra DNA.
Duplicate Genes Evolve
Sometimes copies of a gene undergo mutations
that change their function
Original gene is still around
New genes can evolve without affecting the
original gene function or product.
Duplicate Genes Evolve
Gene Families
Multiple copies of a duplicated gene can turn into
a group of related genes
Produce similar proteins.
Molecular Clocks
Uses mutation rates in DNA to estimate the time
that two species have been evolving
Neutral Mutations as “Ticks”
Neutral mutations occur at a steady rate
More difference the longer the separation.
Calibrating the Clock
Genes accumulate mutations at different rates
Compare the number of mutations in a particular
gene in species whose age has been determined by
other methods.
Hox Genes and Evolution
Small changes in Hox
gene activity during
development can
produce large changes
in adult animals.
Change in a Hox Gene
Mutation in a single Hox
gene (Ubx) “turns off”
the growth of some
pairs of legs.
Fish in Two Lakes
A research team studied two lakes in an area that
sometimes experiences flooding. Each lake
contained two types of similar fish: a dull brown
and an iridescent gold. The team wondered how all
the fish were related and considered the two
hypotheses diagrammed on the next slide.
Interpret Visuals What does hypothesis a indicate
about the ancestry of the fish in lake 1 and lake 2?
What does hypothesis B indicate
Compare and Contrast According to the two
hypotheses, what is the key difference in the way the
brown and gold fish population might have formed?
Draw Conclusions A
DNA analysis showed
that the brown and gold
fish from Lake 1 are
most closely related.
Which hypothesis does
this evidence support?