... Biology 6C
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... Title: Data archive 1 - Summary of the regulatory S-genes (g-eQTL) for each T-gene
from our gene-based PLS analysis according to population.
Description: This Excel file provides a table that summarizes the regulatory S-genes (geQTL) for each T-gene from our gene-based PLS analysis by population. Th ...
... • Because males have only one X
chromosome, they show all the traitsgenes on that X. Females have two X’s,
so they have two chances to get a gene
that is good, and can show the good
Example: If females, have one gene on an X for
colorblindness, and one gene on the other X
for normal vision, s ...
Supplementary Fig S7: A Schematic Figure of the Key Driver Analysis
... Supplementary Fig S7: A Schematic Figure of the Key Driver Analysis (KDA). In order to test if
gene G (shown in red) is a KD or not, the subnetwork of G is first extracted by retrieving its 1st to 3rdlayer neighbor genes in the network. Subsequently, the enrichment of genes in a given BP gene set
... Genes are _______________ from _______________ to their
2. Some forms of a gene (_____________) may be ______________ and
others may be ______________________.
3. In most _______________ reproducing organisms, each adult has
_______________copies of each gene—one from
... Figure 1 Genes used to study RNA-mediated genetic interference in C.elegans. Intron–exon structure for genes used to test RNA-mediated inhibition
are shown (grey and filled boxes, exons; open boxes, introns; patterned and striped boxes, 5' and 3' untranslated regions. unc-22. ref. 9, unc-54, ref. 1 ...
... affected and notaffected members of
the KE family
Variations in the small
locus of the long arm
of chromosome 7
Speciation - Deans Community High School
... genetically distinct that even if they are put together they can no longer interbreed
and produce fertile offspring. They have evolved to become separate species.
Hemochromatosis gene nomenclature
... are not certain what the letters originally stood for;
maybe there was some clash with a more obvious symbol, or maybe FE was thought to be memorable because
of the iron. However, the main purpose of assigning a
symbol at that stage was to indicate its position easily
on a genetic map.
The designati ...
In our laboratory we deal with two types of biomolecules – DNA and
... In our laboratory we deal with two types of biomolecules – DNA and proteins. Everything that
concerns DNA molecules is called genetic engineering. When we want to obtain some protein,
we must first get the gene encoding this protein. We construct artificial genes from short DNA
sequences called prim ...
A. Incomplete Penetrance D. Pleiotropy B. Variable Expressivity
... 7. The protein, catalase, is used as an enzyme in numerous chemical reactions.
Unfortunately, Samatha does not have the ability to break down catalase, so she
has been suffering from constant stomach problems, kidney problems, as well as a
central nervous problem.
8. Male pattern baldness can affect ...
Evolution: three coordinated legs
... • Environments can be “stable” or fluctuating, and this affects
evolutionary rate and direction; different variations can be selected in
• What evidence do you have from the Grant’s finch study to support this
... (come from the same parent plant)
from Yarrow plant clones grew differently at
three different altitudes
Cuttings from one plant grew tall at the
lowest and the highest elevation
But a third cutting remained short at midelevation
Even though these plants were genetically
identical, their pheno ...
Cancer Research Project
... 1. You will be assigned a gene that has been demonstrated to contribute to the development of
cancer in humans.
2. You will research this gene.
3. You will create a 1 page document that answers each of the following questions:
● Is the gene a proto-oncogene, tumor suppressor, DNA repair enzyme, or s ...
Automated Gene Synthesis Machines
... The Risks of Gene Therapy
• It can cause your immune system to attack the
virus inserted causing organ failure and
• The virus may spread through more than one
cell causing mutated cells and missing genes.
• Finally it may introduce a tumor if they are
inserted into the wrong spot in ...
Chapter 21 The human genome appears to have only about as
... 1. The human genome appears to have only about as many genes as the simple nematode worm,
C. elegans. Which of the following best explains how the more complex humans can have
relatively few genes?
a. Human genes have unusually long introns involved in the regulation of gene expression.
b. More than ...
Abstract The phenomena of gene fusion and fission occur
... their associated protein domains and to link them to their environmental conditions,
which may be the case for secondary metabolite genes. We are interested in
investigating if any particular species, genus or family are more susceptible to gene
fusion or gene fission events and also if any gene fam ...
Gene nomenclature is the scientific naming of genes, the units of heredity in living organisms. An international committee published recommendations for genetic symbols and nomenclature in 1957. The need to develop formal guidelines for human gene names and symbols was recognized in the 1960s and full guidelines were issued in 1979 (Edinburgh Human Genome Meeting). Several other species-specific research communities (e.g., Drosophila, mouse) have adopted nomenclature standards, as well, and have published them on the relevant model organism websites and in scientific journals, including the Trends in Genetics Genetic Nomenclature Guide. Scientists familiar with a particular gene family may work together to revise the nomenclature for the entire set of genes when new information becomes available. For many genes and their corresponding proteins, an assortment of alternate names is in use across the scientific literature and public biological databases, posing a challenge to effective organization and exchange of biological information. Standardization of nomenclature thus tries to achieve the benefits of vocabulary control and bibliographic control, although adherence is voluntary. The advent of the information age has brought gene ontology, which in some ways is a next step of gene nomenclature, because it aims to unify the representation of gene and gene product attributes across all species.Gene nomenclature and protein nomenclature are not separate endeavors; they are aspects of the same whole. Any name or symbol used for a protein can potentially also be used for the gene that encodes it, and vice versa. But owing to the nature of how science has developed (with knowledge being uncovered bit by bit over decades), proteins and their corresponding genes have not always been discovered simultaneously (and not always physiologically understood when discovered), which is the largest reason why protein and gene names do not always match, or why scientists tend to favor one symbol or name for the protein and another for the gene. Another reason is that many of the mechanisms of life are the same or very similar across species, genera, orders, and phyla, so that a given protein may be produced in many kinds of organisms; and thus scientists naturally often use the same symbol and name for a given protein in one species (for example, mice) as in another species (for example, humans). Regarding the first duality (same symbol and name for gene or protein), the context usually makes the sense clear to scientific readers, and the nomenclatural systems also provide for some specificity by using italic for a symbol when the gene is meant and plain (roman) for when the protein is meant. Regarding the second duality (a given protein is endogenous in many kinds of organisms), the nomenclatural systems also provide for at least human-versus-nonhuman specificity by using different capitalization, although scientists often ignore this distinction, given that it is often biologically irrelevant.Also owing to the nature of how scientific knowledge has unfolded, proteins and their corresponding genes often have several names and symbols that are synonymous. Some of the earlier ones may be deprecated in favor of newer ones, although such deprecation is voluntary. Some older names and symbols live on simply because they have been widely used in the scientific literature (including before the newer ones were coined) and are well established among users.