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Genetic Engineering
Aviation High School
Living Environment
1. The diagram below represents some methods used by plant
growers to produce and maintain desirable varieties of
Which term belongs in area X?
1) use end disuse
2) artificial selection
2. Which statement provides accurate information about the
technique illustrated below?
This technique results in offspring that are genetically
identical to the parents.
New varieties of organisms can be developed by this
technique known as selective breeding.
This technique is used by farmers to eliminate
mutations in future members of the species.
Since the development of cloning, this technique is no
longer used in agriculture.
3. Some farmers currently grow genetically engineered crops.
An argument against the use of this technology is that
1) it increases crop production
2) it produces insect-resistant plants
3) its long-term effects on humans are still being
4) it always results in crops that do not taste good
Genetic Engineering
4. The arrows in the diagram below indicate the development of four different varieties of vegetable plants from wild mustard.
Each of these varieties was most likely produced as a result of
1) asexual reproduction in the wild for many years
2) changes in light availability
5. Selective breeding is a technique that is used to
1) give all organisms a chance to reproduce
2) produce organisms from extinct species
3) produce offspring with certain desirable traits
4) keep farm crops free of all mutations
3) competition between plants
4) selective breeding over many generations
10. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram
below and on your knowledge of biology.
6. Which laboratory procedure has made possible the
development of bacteria that can synthesize human insulin?
1) karyotyping
3) amniocentesis
2) genetic engineering
4) screening of body fluids
Base your answers to questions 7 through 9 on the information
below and on your knowledge of biology.
In 1973, Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer inserted a gene
from an African clawed frog into a bacterium. The bacterium then
began producing a protein directed by the code found on the
inserted frog gene.
7. The newly synthesized genetic material in the bacterium is
known as
1) recombinant DNA
3) a gene mutation
2) messenger RNA
4) a multiple allele
8. The procedure used by Cohen and Boyer is known as
1) cloning
3) karyotyping
2) genetic engineering
4) genetic screening
9. Additional copies of the bacterium containing the frog gene
could be produced by
1) asexual reproduction
3) inbreeding
2) cross-pollination
4) grafting
Structure B represents
1) a ribosome
2) transfer RNA
recombinant DNA
a male gamete
Base your answers to questions 11 and 12 on the information
Some geneticists are suggesting the possibility of transferring
some of the genes that influence photosynthesis from an efficient
variety of crop plant to a less efficient crop plant to produce a new
variety with improved productivity.
11. To produce this new variety, the project would most likely
1) amniocentesis
3) genetic engineering
2) genetic screening
4) inbreeding
Genetic Engineering
12. Which technique would most likely be used to produce
large numbers of genetically identical offspring from this
new variety of plant?
1) cloning
3) cross-pollination
2) karyotyping
4) chromatography
13. The diagram below illustrates some key steps of a procedure in one area of biotechnology.
The letter X most likely represents
1) bacterial cells that are unable to synthesize insulin
2) human cells that are able to synthesize antibodies
3) bacterial cells that are able to synthesize insulin
4) human cells that are unable to resist antibiotics
14. Many diabetics are now using insulin that was made by
certain bacteria. The ability of these bacteria to produce
insulin was most likely the result of
1) deleting many DNA segments from bacterial DNA
2) genetic mapping of bacterial DNA to activate the gene
for insulin production
3) inserting a portion of human DNA into the ring-shaped
DNA of bacteria
4) using radiation to trigger mutations
15. Which statement best describes the result of some of the
processes involved in genetic engineering?
1) They alter the arrangement of hereditary material.
2) They provide energy for mitosis and meiosis.
3) They are necessary for normal gamete formation.
4) They reduce variation in organisms that reproduce
16. The diagrams below represent some steps in a procedure used in biotechnology.
Letters X and Y represent the
1) hormones that stimulate the replication of bacterial DNA
2) biochemical catalysts involved in the insertion of genes into other organisms
3) hormones that trigger rapid mutation of genetic information
4) gases needed to produce the energy required for gene manipulation
Genetic Engineering
17. A great deal of information can now be obtained about the
future health of people by examining the genetic makeup of
their cells. There are concerns that this information could
be used to deny an individual health insurance or
employment. These concerns best illustrate that
1) scientific explanations depend upon evidence collected
from a single source
2) scientific inquiry involves the collection of information
from a large number of sources
3) acquiring too much knowledge in human genetics will
discourage future research in that area
4) while science provides knowledge, values are essential
to making ethical decisions using this knowledge
21. A product of genetic engineering technology is represented
18. Which statement best describes human insulin that is
produced by genetically engineered bacteria?
1) This insulin will not function normally in humans
because it is produced by bacteria.
2) This insulin is produced as a result of human insulin
being inserted into bacteria cells.
3) This insulin is produced as a result of exposing
bacteria cells to radiation, which produces a mutation.
4) This insulin may have fewer side effects than the
insulin previously extracted from the pancreas of other
22. Researchers Cohn and Boyer transferred a gene from an
African clawed frog into a bacterium. To accomplish this,
these scientists had to use
1) enzymes to cut out and insert the gene
2) hereditary information located in amino acids
3) radiation to increase the gene mutation rate of the
bacterial cells
4) cancer cells to promote rapid cell division
Which substance was needed to join the insulin gene to the
bacterial DNA as shown?
1) a specific carbohydrate 3) hormones
2) a specific enzyme
4) antibodies
23. The diagram below represents a common laboratory
technique in molecular genetics.
19. A gene that codes for resistance to glyphosate, a
biodegradable weedkiller, has been inserted into certain
plants. As a result, these plants will be more likely to
1) produce chemicals that kill weeds growing near them
2) die when exposed to glyphosate
3) convert glyphosate into fertilizer
4) survive when glyphosate is applied to them
20. A biotechnology firm has produced tobacco plants that
synthesize human antibodies that prevent bacterial diseases.
One of the first steps in the production of these plants
1) using natural selection to increase the survival of
antibody-producing tobacco plants
2) inserting human DNA segments into the cells of
tobacco plants
3) using selective breeding to increase the number of
antibody genes in tobacco plants
4) growing tobacco plants in soil containing a specific
One common use of this technology is the
1) production of a human embryo to aid women who are
unable to have children
2) change of single-celled organisms to multicellular
3) introduction of a toxic substance to kill bacterial cells
4) production of hormones or enzymes to replace missing
human body chemicals
Genetic Engineering
Base your answers to questions 24 and 25 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
24. In the procedure indicated by letter A, DNA segments from humans and bacteria are joined by the action of
1) starch molecules
2) simple sugars
3) enzymes
4) hormone
25. Which process is indicated by letter B?
1) natural selection
2) asexual reproduction
3) sexual reproduction
4) gene deletion
26. In some people, the lack of a particular enzyme causes a disease. Scientists are attempting to use bacteria to produce this enzyme for the
treatment of people with the disease. Which row in the chart below best describes the sequence of steps the scientist would most likely
1) 1
2) 2
27. If a gene is inserted into the DNA of a bacterial cell, every
cell produced by that cell will have
1) DNA that is different from that of the other cells
2) a 50% chance of having a copy of the inserted gene
3) a copy of the inserted gene
4) a new type of DNA base
3) 3
4) 4
28. Throughout the history of life on Earth, many processes
have resulted in new traits in organisms. Which list shows
some of these processes in order from the oldest to the most
recently used?
1) gene manipulation, natural selection, selective breeding
2) natural selection, selective breeding, gene manipulation
3) natural selection, gene manipulation, selective breeding
4) selective breeding, gene manipulation, natural selection
Genetic Engineering
29. The cloning of cells involves the process of
1) meiotic cell division
3) mitotic cell division
2) fusion of gametes
4) formation of spores
30. A process used in agriculture is represented in the diagram below.
The diagram illustrates a process known as
1) amniocentesis
2) translocation
31. Scientists have cloned sheep but have not yet cloned a
human. The best explanation for this situation is that
1) the technology to clone humans has not been explored
2) human reproduction is very different from that of other
3) there are many ethical problems involved in cloning
4) cloning humans would take too long
32. One way to produce large numbers of genetically identical
offspring is by
1) cloning
2) fertilization
3) changing genes by agents such as radiation or
4) inserting a DNA segment into a different DNA
33. Steps in a reproductive process used to produce a sheep
with certain traits are listed below.
Step 1 — The nucleus was removed from an
unfertilized egg taken from sheep A.
Step 2 — The nucleus of a body cell taken from
sheep B was then inserted into this
unfertilized egg from sheep A.
Step 3 — The resulting cell was then implanted
into the uterus of sheep C.
Step 4 — Sheep C gave birth to sheep D.
Which sheep would be most genetically similar to sheep D?
1) sheep A, only
3) both sheep A and B
2) sheep B, only
4) both sheep A and C
3) cloning
4) nondisjunction
Genetic Engineering
34. The diagram below represents the process used in 1996 to clone the first mammal, a sheep named Dolly.
Which statement concerning Dolly is correct?
1) Gametes from sheep A and sheep B were united to produce Dolly.
2) The chromosome makeup of Dolly is identical to that of sheep A.
3) Both Dolly and sheep C have identical DNA.
4) Dolly contains genes from sheep B and sheep C.
Genetic Engineering
35. Two methods of reproduction are represented in the diagram below.
How does the DNA in the offspring produced by these methods compare to the DNA in the original organism?
1) The offspring contain half the original number of chromosomes in each method.
2) The DNA in the offspring is genetically identical to that of the original organism in both methods.
3) The offspring produced by method A contain twice the original number of genes, while those produced by method B contain half the
original number of genes.
4) The number of DNA bases is less than that of the original organism in method A, but more than the original number in method B.
36. A scientist claimed that he had cloned a guinea pig to
produce two offspring, a male and a female. The claim is
not valid because
1) guinea pigs can reproduce both sexually and asexually
2) the two offspring are not identical copies of the
original guinea pig
3) each of the offspring had half the genetic information
of the original guinea pig
4) none of the genetic information came from the original
guinea pig
37. Modem technology could be used to clone pet dogs and
cats. The cloned animals would resemble the original pets
1) the genes of the new animals are different from those
of the original pets
2) half of the genetic information of the new animals is
the same as that of the original pets
3) the new animals have mutations not found in the
original pets
4) the new animals have the same genetic information as
the original pets
Genetic Engineering
38. Base your answer to the following question on the
information and diagram below and on your knowledge of
The diagram below shows the results of a test
that was done using DNA samples from three
bears of different species. Each DNA sample was
cut into fragments using a specific enzyme and
placed in the wells as indicated below. The DNA
fragments were then separated using gel
Gel electrophoresis is used to separate DNA fragments on
the basis of their
1) size
3) functions
2) color
4) chromosomes
Genetic Engineering
39. Base your answer to the following question on the charts below and your knowledge of biology.
A student was told that three different plant species are very closely related. She was provided with a short segment of the
same portion of the DNA molecule that coded for enzyme X from each of the three species.
The correct sequence of mRNA bases for plant species B is
Genetic Engineering
40. Base your answer to the following question on the
information and diagram below and on your knowledge of
The four wells represented in the diagram
were each injected with fragments that were
prepared from DNA samples using identical
This laboratory procedure is known as
1) cloning
2) gel electrophoresis
3) chromatography
4) use of a dichotomous key
41. Scientists hypothesize that cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower,
and radishes developed along a common evolutionary
pathway. Which observation would best support this
1) Fossils of these plants were found in the same rock
2) Chloroplasts of these plants produce a gas.
3) These plants live in the same environment.
4) These plants have similar proteins.
Genetic Engineering
42. Base your answer to the following question on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
In an investigation, DNA samples from four organisms, A, B, C, and D, were cut into fragments. The number of bases in the
resulting DNA fragments for each sample is shown below.
The diagram below represents the gel-like material through which the DNA fragments moved during gel electrophoresis. Draw lines to
represent the position of the fragments from each DNA sample when electrophoresis is completed.
Genetic Engineering
Answer Key
Genetic Technology Worksheet [Mar 22, 2016]