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Posterior Pituitary The posterior pituitary is significantly different in structure and function from the anterior pituitary. As its name implies, the posterior pituitary is behind the anterior pituitary (toward the back). It contains mostly axons of secretory neurons and neuroglia cells; the cell bodies of these neurons are in the hypothalamus. The posterior pituitary and the infundibulum together are referred to as the neurohypophysis. The posterior pituitary does not produce hormones, but stores hormones produced by the hypothalamus and release them into the bloodstream. The hormones antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin are produced by neurons in the hypothalamus and transported within these axons along the infundibulum to the posterior pituitary. They are released into the posterior pituitary capillaries in response to neural signaling from the hypothalamus. These hormones are considered to be posterior pituitary hormones, even though they are produced by the hypothalamus, because that is where they are released into the circulatory system.