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Transcript
Transport
Movement across
the Cell Membrane
Lipids of cell membrane
 Membrane consists primarily of
phospholipids

phospholipid bilayer
inside cell
phosphate
hydrophilic
lipid
hydrophobic
outside cell
S1
The Fluidity of Membranes
 Phospholipids in the membrane are
fluid (can move easily)
Lateral movement
(~107 times per second)
Flip-flop
(~ once per month)
(a) Movement of phospholipids
Figure 7.5 A
S2
Semi-permeable membrane
 Will allow passage through the
membrane
 But need to control what gets in or out
membrane needs to be semi-permeable
sugar
aa
lipid
H 2O
salt
NH3
So how does a semipermeable membrane work?
S3
Phospholipid bilayer
 What molecules can get through directly?
inside cell
NH3
outside cell
lipid
salt
sugar aa
Small lipids
can slip directly
through the
phospholipid cell
membrane,
H 2O
S4
Getting through cell membrane
 Diffusion

Passive transport of small molecules
 high  low concentration gradient
 Facilitated Diffusion


Passive transport of larger or polar molecules
through a protein channel
 high  low concentration gradient
 Active transport

diffusion against the concentration gradient
 low  high


uses a protein channel (pump)
requires ATP energy
S5
Diffusion (passive transport)
 movement from high  low
concentration
S6
Diffusion of two solutes (passive)
 Each substance diffuses down its own
concentration gradient, independent of
concentration gradients of other
substances
S7
Osmosis, the diffusion of water
 Water goes from HIGH to LOW
concentration
“passive transport”
 no energy needed (does not require ATP)

diffusion
osmosis
S8
Simple diffusion across membrane
Which way will
lipid move?
lipid
inside cell
low
lipid
lipid
lipid
lipid
lipid

high
outside cell
lipid
lipid
lipid
lipid
lipid
lipid
lipid
lipid
Facilitated Diffusion through a Channel
 Movement from high to low
sugar
inside cell sugar
sugar sugar
sugar
Which way
will sugar
move?
low

high
outside cell
sugar
sugar sugar
sugar
sugar
sugar
sugar
Semi-permeable cell membrane
 But the cell still needs control

membrane needs to be semi-permeable
 specific channels allow
specific material in & out
inside cell
salt
outside
NH3 cell
H 2O
aa
sugar
Active Transport (needs ATP energy)
 Membrane proteins act as a PUMP for specific
molecules


shape change transports a substance from one side of
membrane to the other
requires energy in the form of ATP
shape change transports
high
low
“The Doorman”
S9
Active transport (Low to High)
 Cells may need molecules to move
against concentration situation
protein pump
 requires energy
 ATP for NRG
Na+/K+ pump
in nerve cell
membranes
S10
Transport summary
How about large molecules?
 Moving large molecules into & out of cell
through vesicles & vacuoles
 Endocytosis (moving into cell)
 phagocytosis = “cellular eating”
 pinocytosis = “cellular drinking”
 receptor-mediated
endocytosis

Exocytosis (moving out)
exocytosis
Endocytosis
phagocytosis
pinocytosis
receptor-mediated
endocytosis
fuse with
lysosome for
digestion
non-specific
process
triggered by
chemical
signal
More than just a barrier…
 Expanding our view of cell membrane
beyond just a phospholipid bilayer
barrier

phospholipids plus…
A membrane is a collage of different proteins
embedded in the fluid matrix of the lipid bilayer
Membrane Proteins
 Proteins determine most of membrane’s
specific functions

cell membrane & organelle membranes each
have unique collections of proteins
 Membrane proteins:


peripheral proteins = loosely
bound to surface of membrane
integral proteins = penetrate into
lipid bilayer, often completely
spanning the membrane =
transmembrane protein
Membrane Carbohydrates
 Play a key role in cell-cell recognition
ability of a cell to distinguish
neighboring cells from another
 important in organ &
tissue development
 basis for rejection of
foreign cells by
immune system

Any Questions?
Fluid Mosaic Model