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Transcript
Science 8
Ms. Morin
Name ______________
Date _________ Blk __
Chapter 1 (p.6-51):
The cell is the basic unit of life.
Chapter Opener (p.6-7)
1) Define cell.
The basic unit of life.
2) What is the difference between unicellular and multicellular living things?
Organisms that are composed of only one cell are unicellular and
organisms composed of many cells are multicellular. Ex. Unicellular –
Stentor, Ex. Multicellular – human, animal, plant
3) Define organism.
Anything composed of either one or more cells. Unicellular or
multicellular.
4) In this chapter, you will:
 identify the characteristics of Living and Non-Living things
 demonstrate an understanding of _CELLS
 explain the processes of Diffusion and Osmosis
1.1 Observing Living Things (p.8-21)
AMAZING SURVIVAL STORIES
5) Describe one example of a living thing that has special features which
help it survive. Your example CANNOT come from the textbook.
Mountain pine beetle – releases pheromones to attract other beetles for
mating, Salmon uses chemo-sensory to navigate back to their native
1
streams, Bears hibernate, bird life south in the winter, Monarch
butterfly flies in migrations
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS
6) List the FIVE characteristics of living things AND give an example of
each characteristic.
CHARACTERISTIC
EXAMPLE
Living things respond to their
Scaring a student in science 8 class
environment by responding to a
causes them to jump out of their
stimulus
chair
Living things need energy
Plants need carbon dioxide and water
to produce oxygen and sugars
Bears need to eat to get fat
reserves for the winter
Living things grow
Cells divide and increase in number
therefore an organism will grow.
Cells will continually die and be
replaced. A sunflower seed will grow
into a massive sunflower
Living things reproduce
Genetic information needs to be
passed on. Animals and plants will
reproduce prior to dying
Living things must get rid of wastes
Animals produce wastes such as
carbon dioxide, feces and urine.
Plants waste is oxygen
7) Define stimulus.
Is anything that causes a living thing to respond.
2
EXAMINING VERY SMALL LIVING THINGS
8) List THREE types of microscopes.

_magnifying lens_

______Compound light microscope_____

___Electron Microscopes_____/scanning electron microscope__
9) Define electron micrograph.
Images created from using an electron microscope._____
10) Define scanning electron microscope.
___SEM uses electrons to bounce on the surface of a microorganism
and allows creates an image that allows a scientist to see detail on
the surface of the microorganism_
EARLY MICROSCOPES
11) When were early microscopes built? late 1600 and early 1700_____
12) What was the approximate magnification of Anton van Leeuwenhoek’s
first microscopes? ____250X___
13) What is the proper way to carry a microscope?
_______Always have one hand on the base and one hand on the neck
14) A compound microscope has __TWO____ sets of lenses. When you look
through a compound microscope, you will observe an image that is
__MAGNIFIED___, ___INVERTED_, and ___REVERSED______.
15) Draw how the letter “G” would appear when viewed through a compound
light microscope.
16) Define magnification power.
An objective lens has either low (4X), medium (10X) or high
magnification power (40x). The eye piece usually has a magnification
3
power of 10X, therefore the actual magnification of the object
observing is the eyepiece lens times the objective lens
17) The objective lenses on most compound light microscopes used in schools
today have these powers of magnification:
 low-power objective lens: __4x__
 medium-power objective lens: ___10x___
 high-power objective lens: __40x__
18) Usually, the lens in the eyepiece has a magnification of _10x__
19) Define resolving power.
______The ability to distinguish between two dots or objects that
are very close together.______
20)
The resolving power of a compound light microscope is about 0.2
microns. Explain what this means.
_______It means that a compound light microscope only has the
ability to view objects that are greater than 0.2 microns, otherwise
it won’t allow you to distinguish between the two.________________
1.2 Cells (p.22-39)
USING AN ANALOGY TO UNDERSTAND A CELL
21) Define analogy.
____It’s a tool to help understand a science concept by making a
comparison___________
INSIDE A CELL
22)
Define organelle.
4
______is a cell structure in which functions are carried out to ensure
the cell’s survival_________
23)
Organelles take up about 5_ to _30_ percent of a cell. The rest of
the cell consists of __water_.
24)
Define cell membrane.
____A membrane or “wall” that separates the interior of the cell from
its surroundings. _Allows particles to enter and leave the cell.__
25)
Define cytoplasm.
__________Jelly like substance that contains organelles, water, and
other life supporting materials____
THE FUNCTIONS OF CELL ORGANELLES
26)
Define nucleus.
Is the control center of the cell. It controls all the functions and
activities within the cell
27)
What does DNA stand for? __deoxyribonucleic acid_
28)
What is the function of DNA?
__DNA carries the heredity material that is passed on from
generation to generation. _______
29)
Define mitochondria.
Energy producing cell organelle. It carries out cellular respiration.
It is opposite to photosynthesis.
30)
Define cellular respiration.
__Chemical energy created from the food that we consume is
changed into energy that cells can use to carry out their
activities______
5
31) The total of all the chemical reactions that take place in our cells is
called our __metabolism__.
32)
Why are there more mitochondria in a muscle cell than in a cheek cell?
____Our muscle cells do more work than our cheek cells and
therefore require more mitochondria to produce that energy.____
35) Write the equation for cellular respiration in the space below
Food + oxygen >>>>> carbon dioxide and water and energy that can be
used by living things.
TYPICAL ANIMAL AND PLANT CELLS
36)
Label the animal cell shown below.
37) Label the plant cell shown below.
6
ORGANELLES FOR ASSEMBLY, TRANSPORT, AND STORAGE
38)
Define the following terms.
TERM
PROTEINS
DEFINITION
Are the building blocks for the variety of structures in
the cell
RIBOSOMES
Proteins are created by ribosomes >> manufacturing
warehouse for proteins. Some are floating in the
cytoplasm while others are attached to the endoplasmic
reticulum
ENDOPLASMIC
Network of membrane covered channels that sort and or
RETICULUM
distribute proteins
GOLGI BODY
Packaging and sorting of proteins and vesicle producing
VESICLES
Membrane wrapped structures such as vacuoles
VACUOLES
Temporary storages containers of either proteins,
nutrients, and water. Used to transport around or out of
the cells
LYSOSOME
Destroys old organelles and recycles them when they wear
out
7
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS
39)
Name the TWO cell parts that are found in plants but not in animals
AND give the function of each.
CELL PART
FUNCTION
Cell wall
Tough rigid structure that surrounds the cell
membrane and gives the cell support and
protection from desiccation
Chloroplasts
Traps and converts sunlight energy into
chemical energy for plants. Photosynthesis
occurs here.
40)
Write the equation for photosynthesis in the space below.
Light energy + carbon dioxide + water >>> food + oxygen
41) List the ways that plant cells differ from animal cells.

Photosynthesis occurs in plants

__ PLANTS HAVE ONE LARGE VACUOLE___

______Plant cells have cell walls______

_______Plant cells have chloroplasts
8
CELL THEORY
42)
Who first identified cells? __ROBERT HOOKE_____________ In
what year? _1665_
43)
Which scientist proved that living things could not come from non-
living things? ___Louis Pasteur_ In what year? __1864_
44)
List the three main principles of the cell theory.

_________The cell is the basic unit of life_________

All organisms are composed of one or more cells

______All cells come from other living cells_____
PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS
45)
What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
_______Prokaryotic cells do not have membrane bound organelles.
Eukaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles. Prokaryotic cells
usually have a cell wall, DNA, ribosomes and cytoplasm. Eukaryotic cells
range from unicellular to multicellular organisms.________ ___
46)
Multicellular organisms and a few unicellular organisms, such as
amoebas, are composed of ___Eukaryotic__ cells.
BACTERIA
47)
Define bacteria.
_______Are prokaryotic cells and come in 3 different shapes. Cocci,
Baccilli, Spirilla______
48)
To date, there are over __5000_ different types of bacteria that can
be found in environments all over Earth.
49)
Give two examples of harmful bacteria.

_____Ecoli__________

____________Salmonella_______________
9
50)
Give two examples of helpful bacteria.

Bacteria that produces cheeses, or medicine

_______Bacteria that lines our stomach__________________
51) Name and draw the three different shapes of bacteria.
SHAPE
DRAWING
Cocci
Spheres
Baccilli
Rods
Spirilla
spirals
VIRUSES
52)
Define virus.
________Tiny, non-living particles that reproduce only when they are
inside a host cell. It has no nucleus and no organelles. It carries only
DNA. Viruses come in different shapes._______
1.3 Diffusion, Osmosis, and the Cell Membrane (p.40-49)
WHAT IS DIFFUSION?
53)
Diffusion results when particles move from an area of _HIGHER____
concentration to an area of __LOWER____ concentration.
54)
Define concentration.
_______the amount of substance in a given space__________
DIFFUSION AND THE CELL MEMBRANE
55)
Why is the cell membrane called a selectively permeable membrane?
10
_______It allows some materials to pass through it but keeps other
materials out._______
56)
Draw and label the diagram in Figure 1.32 on page 42 of your textbook
in the space below.
57)
Define equilibrium.
____When the concentration of particles is in balance across a
selectively permeable membrane_____
OSMOSIS
58)
Osmosis is the diffusion of _____water_____ through a selectively
permeable membrane.
59)
In osmosis, water particles move from an area of ___higher__
concentration to an area of ___lower__ concentration.
WATER FLOW THROUGH THE CELL MEMBRANE
11
60)
To predict the direction of water flow through a cell membrane, you
have to compare the _____water concentrations _____ on both sides of
the membrane.
61) Complete the table shown below.
SITUATION
a) there are equal
DIRECTION OF
WATER FLOW
In and out of the
concentrations of water
membrane
SIZE OF CELL
Normal size
inside and outside the
cell membrane
b) there is a higher
Water will enter the
concentration of water
cell more than it will
outside the cell than
exit the cell
Blown up cell - enlarged
inside
c) there is a higher
Water will exit the cell
concentration of water
more than it will enter
inside the cell than
the cell
Shrunk cell - smaller
outside
APPLICATION OF OSMOSIS
62)
Explain how the antibiotic drug penicillin uses the process of osmosis
to destroy harmful bacteria.
_______Penicillin acts by preventing the bacteria from producing a
substance that strengthens their cell walls. Our bodies have a higher
concentration of water than there is in the bacterial cells. Water flows into
12
the bacteria causing it to swell therefore the bacteria will burst and
die._________________________________________
REVERSE OSMOSIS
63)
Reverse osmosis occurs when water flows from an area of __lower__
concentration to an area of ___higher___ concentration across a
selectively permeable membrane.
64)
Reverse osmosis can happen only when the pressure on the lower
concentration side of the membrane is __increased__.
65)
List four uses of reverse osmosis.

Desalinate water – filtering salt out of seawater

__purifying maple syrup_______

__increasing concentration of fruit juices_____

______Treating sewage_________________
ALL DONE!!
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