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Cellular Functions
Cell Wall
Found in plant cells, algae, fungi, and
many prokaryotes, but not in animal
Provides support and protection for the
Mostly cellulose which is the main
component of wood and paper.
Cell Membrane
Encloses the cell and regulates what
enters and leaves the cell
Is a phospholipid bilayer.
Every cell has a cell membrane!!
Clear, jelly-like substance inside the cell
that contains the organelles.
Control center of the cell. Contains
DNA which carries instructions for
making proteins.
Nuclear Envelope (membrane)
Membrane that encloses the nucleus,
sometimes called nuclear membrane.
Nuclear pore
Hole in the membrane surrounding the
nucleus, allows some things to pass
Dark, condensed region inside the
nucleus where assembly of ribosomes
Network of protein filaments that helps
the cell to maintain its shape.
Microtubules are hollow structures
that also play an important part in cell
In animal cells, these microtubules are
called centrioles.
Form of cytoskeleton found in animal
cells, involved in cell division.
Storage vessels for water, salts,
carbohydrates, and proteins.
Most plant cells have a large, central
vacuole, but many animal cells contain
many small vacuoles.
Make proteins by following coded
instructions that come from the
Found throughout the cytoplasm, and
attached to rough Endoplasmic
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A membrane system where lipid
components of the cell membrane are
assembled, along with proteins and
other materials.
Rough ER, contains ribosomes, and is
involved in protein synthesis.
Smooth ER, contains enzymes involved
in synthesis of lipids, and detoxification.
Golgi Apparatus
Flattened membranes where proteins
are modified, sorted, packaged, and
shipped to their final destination.
Convert chemical energy stored in food
into compounds that are more
convenient for the cell to use.
Found in plant cells, they capture the
energy from the sun and convert it into
chemical energy in a process called
Particles made of protein and DNA
found in the nucleus.
Digest, or break down lipids,
carbohydrates, and proteins to be used
by the rest of the cell.
Breakdown organelles that are no
longer useful, for removal as waste.
Hairlike structures found on some cells
that act as “paddles” to allow
“Tail-like” structures found on some
cells to allow movement.
Cell Boundaries
In solution, particles move constantly.
Particles tend to move from an area of
high concentration, to an area of low
concentration, until equilibrium is
The diffusion of water molecules through a
selectively permeable membrane.
States of Solution
Isotonic- solution is the same concentration
on both sides of a membrane.
Hypertonic-solution has a higher
concentration of solutes than the cell.
Hypotonic- solution has a lower
concentration than the cell.
Other types of transport
Facilitated diffusion – protein
channel assists in getting particles
across the membrane
Active transport – requires the cell to
use energy!!!!!!!!