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Class Notes
Lesson 5 Cell Cycle
Objectives: 1.2.2, 1.1.3, 4.2.1
How do multicellular eukaryotes replace damaged cells and how do single
cellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes reproduce?
Cell Division: The process by which a “parent cell” divides to form two or
more new “daughter cells”.
Cell Cycle: The continuous process in which individual cells grow, make
copies of their chromosomes (aka c’somes), and then divide to form
daughter cells.
The Cell Cycle
• G1 Phase- Cells grow to mature size
• Longest phase of the cell cycle (18-20 hours).
• S Phase- Cell’s DNA is copied
• G2 Phase- Cell prepares for cell division
• Shortest phase of the cell cycle
• M Phase of Cell Cycle
• Division of the nucleus during cell division.
• Number of c’somes is same in mother and daughter cells
• Used for homeostasis/cell maintenance and asexual reproduction by
plants, and unicellular eukaryotes.
• First phase of mitosis.
• Nuclear envelope dissolves.
• DNA shortens and tightens into c’somes.
• Spindle fibers form from centrioles and drag c’somes to ends of
• Two copies of c’somes form, each one is called a chromatid.
– Chromatids are connected by a centromere, which creates the
‘x’ shape.
• Second phase of mitosis.
• C’somes visible w/ a light microscope for the first time.
• Spindles move c’somes to center of the cell, line them up, and
hold them in place.
• Third phase.
• Chromatids split and are pulled by spindles to opposite poles of
the dividing cell.
• Once they separate, they are now individual chromosomes.
• Fourth phase.
• C’somes reach opposite ends of the cell.
• Nucleolus and nuclear envelope reform around c’somes.
• The spindle fibers dissolve.
Cytokinesis (New Cell is Complete)
• Cytoplasm divides and splits at the Cleavage Furrow: Area
of the membrane that pinches to divide one cell to become
two. Note in plants, a Cell Plate develops and divides the
two new cells.
Assign Cell Cycle Problem Set
Assign Mitosis Problem Set
Assign Onion Root Tip Online Lab
Key Words
Cell division
Parent cell
Daughter cell
Cell cycle
Sister chromatids
Asexual reproduction